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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects according to the presence or absence of the nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases at baseline (n = 2492)

From: Neck circumference as an independent predictor for NAFLD among postmenopausal women with normal body mass index

Variables Non-NAFLD
(n = 1724)
NAFLD
(n = 768)
p value
Age (years) 58.7 ± 5.6 58.8 ± 5.3 0.62
Current smoker, n (%) 78 (4.5) 36 (4.7) 0.88
Educational attainment, n (%)    0.48
 0–6 448 (26.0) 202 (26.3)  
 7–9 781 (45.3) 363 (47.3)  
 ≥ 10 495 (28.7) 203 (26.4)  
Physical activity, n (%)    0.52
 Low 1258 (73.0) 577 (75.1)  
 Moderate 343 (19.9) 139 (18.1)  
 High 123 (7.1) 52 (6.8)  
BMI (kg/m2) 22.22 ± 1.61 23.27 ± 1.40 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 78.2 ± 7.1 82.6 ± 6.6 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 127.77 ± 18.13 131.27 ± 18.57 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 77.15 ± 9.73 79.47 ± 9.66 < 0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 6.00 ± 1.36 6.68 ± 2.06 < 0.001
PPG (mmol/L) 7.96 ± 3.25 9.87 ± 4.47 < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.90 ± 0.84 6.30 ± 1.22 < 0.001
HOMA-IR 1.49 (1.16–1.93) 2.29 (1.65–2.97) < 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.33 ± 0.32 1.19 ± 0.30 < 0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.67 ± 0.76 2.71 ± 0.82 0.174
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.74 ± 1.00 4.86 ± 1.06 0.011
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.18 (0.89–1.60) 1.71 (1.21–2.50) < 0.001
ALT (U/L) 12 (9–16) 15 (11–23) < 0.001
AST (U/L) 18 (15–22) 19 (16–24) 0.004
GGT (U/L) 15 (11–20) 20 (14–31) < 0.001
CRP (mg/L) 1.09 (0.58–2.01) 2.04 (1.10–3.16) < 0.001
Adiponectin (mg/L) 3.81 ± 1.17 3.19 ± 0.97 < 0.001
Neck circumference (cm) 32.0 ± 2.4 33.4 ± 2.6 < 0.001
  1. ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate transaminase; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GGT, γ-glutamyltransferase; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PPG, postprandial plasma glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure