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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of subjects with or without development of nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases at 3.1 years (n = 1354)

From: Neck circumference as an independent predictor for NAFLD among postmenopausal women with normal body mass index

Variables Non-NAFLD
(n = 925)
NAFLD
(n = 429)
p value
Age (years) 58.6 ± 5.7 58.7 ± 5.5 0.678
Current smoker, n (%) 50 (5.4) 19 (4.4) 0.34
Educational attainment, n (%)    0.26
 0–6 235 (25.4) 120 (28.0)  
 7–9 419 (45.3) 201 (46.9)  
   ≥ 10 271 (29.3) 108 (25.2)  
Physical activity, n (%)    0.95
 Low 672 (72.6) 308 (71.8)  
 Moderate 189 (20.4) 90 (21.0)  
 High 64 (6.9) 31 (7.2)  
BMI (kg/m2) 21.95 ± 1.61 22.79 ± 1.48 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 77.3 ± 6.7 80.5 ± 6.1 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 126.91 ± 17.89 129.38 ± 18.29 0.023
DBP (mmHg) 76.95 ± 9.66 78.21 ± 9.70 0.031
FPG (mmol/L) 5.88 ± 1.20 6.20 ± 1.55 < 0.001
PPG (mmol/L) 7.61 ± 2.95 8.48 ± 3.42 < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.84 ± 0.71 5.93 ± 0.96 0.104
HOMA-IR 1.36 (1.00–1.79) 1.72 (1.36–2.41) < 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.36 ± 0.34 1.28 ± 0.31 < 0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.67 ± 0.77 2.70 ± 0.76 0.552
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.75 ± 1.03 4.80 ± 1.00 0.464
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.14 (0.86–1.51) 1.40 (0.99–1.96) < 0.001
ALT (U/L) 11 (8–15) 13 (10–16) < 0.001
AST (U/L) 19 (15–23) 19 (15–22) 0.781
GGT (U/L) 14 (11–19) 16 (12–23) < 0.001
CRP (mg/L) 1.04 (0.57–1.95) 1.28 (0.68–2.40) < 0.001
Adiponectin (mg/L) 3.98 ± 1.16 3.46 ± 1.13 < 0.001
Neck circumference (cm) 31.6 ± 2.2 32.4 ± 2.2 < 0.001
  1. ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate transaminase; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GGT, γ-glutamyltransferase; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PPG, postprandial plasma glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure