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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants according to frequency of spicy food consumption

From: Association between frequency of spicy food consumption and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China

Characteristics Overall (N = 53,916) Frequency of spicy food consumption Ptrend
Never (N = 34,513) < 1 times/week (N = 12,781) 1–2 times/week (N = 3109) ≥ 3 times/week (N = 3513)
Mean age (years)a 52.5 ± 9.9 53.8 ± 9.9 50.8 ± 9.4 48.6 ± 8.8 48.5 ± 9.0 < 0.0001
Females (%)b 58.1 62.2 53.2 47.3 43.4 < 0.0001
No formal education (%) 43.5 44.5 41.1 39.5 41.9 < 0.0001
Income ≥ 35,000 (yuan) (%) 37.8 36.2 43.8 33.1 34.6 0.51
Current smokers (%) 28.0 26.9 29.1 29.7 31.3 < 0.0001
Current drinkers (%) 17.1 14.1 20.0 22.8 26.9 < 0.0001
Physical activities (MET-h/d) 30.6 ± 15.3 30.6 ± 15.2 31.0 ± 15.2 30.7 ± 15.0 30.2 ± 15.9 0.0024
Consuming meat daily (%) 15.2 13.2 16.5 20.4 24.5 < 0.0001
Consuming fruit daily (%) 6.7 5.6 6.7 11.6 14.6 < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.9 ± 3.1 22.8 ± 3.1 23.0 ± 3.1 23.0 ± 3.0 23.3 ± 3.1 < 0.0001
WC (cm) 76.5 ± 9.1 76.3 ± 9.0 76.9 ± 9.0 76.6 ± 9.1 77.1 ± 9.3 < 0.0001
Habitual snoring (%) 24.3 23.4 26.0 25.3 26.7 < 0.0001
Sleep duration (hours) 7.6 ± 1.2 7.6 ± 1.2 7.6 ± 1.1 7.8 ± 1.1 7.7 ± 1.2 < 0.0001
Women with menopause (%)b,c 53.9 54.0 53.0 52.5 52.6 0.65
  1. Data were adjusted for age and sex unless specified
  2. MET metabolic equivalent of task, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference
  3. aAdjusted for sex
  4. bAdjusted for age
  5. cOnly in women