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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for hypertension associated with frequency of spicy food consumption among adults in Zhejiang

From: Association between frequency of spicy food consumption and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China

Frequency of spicy food intake N. participants Univariate Multivariable
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Total
 Never 34,513 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 < 1 times/week 12,781 0.89 (0.86–0.93) 1.06 (1.01–1.10) 1.05 (1.01–1.10) 1.01 (0.97–1.06)
 1–2 times/week 3109 0.77 (0.71–0.83) 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 1.03 (0.95–1.11) 0.98 (0.91–1.07)
 ≥ 3 times/week 3513 0.74 (0.69–0.79) 0.96 (0.89–1.04) 0.97 (0.90–1.04) 0.88 (0.82–0.96)
 Ptrend    < 0.0001 0.86 0.74 0.02
Malesa
 Never 13,211 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 < 1 times/week 5900 0.92 (0.87–0.98) 1.10 (1.03–1.17) 1.08 (1.01–1.15) 1.02 (0.95–1.09)
 1–2 times/week 1581 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 1.17 (1.05–1.30) 1.17 (1.05–1.31) 1.07 (0.95–1.20)
 ≥ 3 times/week 1881 0.83 (0.75–0.92) 1.05 (0.95–1.16) 1.05 (0.95–1.16) 0.91(0.81–1.01)
 Ptrend    < 0.0001 0.02 0.02 0.39
Femalesa
 Never 21,302 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 < 1 times/week 6881 0.85 (0.80–0.90) 1.03 (0.97–1.09) 1.03 (0.97–1.09) 1.02 (0.96–1.08)
 1–2 times/week 1528 0.62 (0.56–0.69) 0.87 (0.78–0.98) 0.89 (0.79–0.99) 0.90 (0.79–1.01)
 ≥ 3 times/week 1632 0.60 (0.54–0.67) 0.88 (0.79–0.98) 0.90 (0.80–1.00) 0.88 (0.78–0.99)
 Ptrend   < 0.0001 0.02 0.06 0.04
  1. In model 1, odds ratios were adjusted for age (continuous) and sex. Model 2 included additional adjustment for education level (no formal school, primary school, middle school, and high school or above), household income (≤ 19,999 yuan, 20,000–34,999 yuan, ≥ 35,000 yuan), Model 3 included additional adjustment for cigarettes consumption (never, occasional, former, and current), alcohol consumption (never, occasional, former, and current), physical activity (continuous), meat consumption (daily and non-daily), fruit consumption (daily and non-daily), BMI (continuous), WC (continuous), snoring (never, occasional, and habitual), sleep duration (continuous)
  2. aWithout adjustment for sex