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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted β coefficients for systolic blood pressure associated with frequency of spicy food consumption among adults in Zhejiang

From: Association between frequency of spicy food consumption and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China

  Frequency of spicy food consumption Ptrend
Never < 1 times/week 1–2 times/week ≥ 3 times/week
N. participants (total) 34,513 12,781 3109 3513  
 SBP, mmHg 135.9 ± 21.4 134.8 ± 20.8 132.6 ± 20.2 132.6 ± 20.7  
  Unadjusted β (95% CI) Ref − 1.14 (− 1.57, − 0.71) − 3.39 (− 4.16, − 2.61) − 3.36 (− 4.09, − 2.62) < 0.0001
  Model 1 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.73 (0.32, 1.14) − 0.20 (− 0.94, 0.55) − 0.30 (− 1.00, 0.41) 0.88
  Model 2 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.74 (0.32, 1.15) − 0.06 (− 0.81, 0.69) − 0.21 (− 0.92, 0.49) 0.63
  Model 3 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.31 (− 0.08, 0.71) − 0.41 (− 1.13, 0.31) − 0.96 (− 1.64, − 0.27) 0.03
N. participants (males)a 13,211 5900 1581 1881  
 SBP, mmHg 137.0 ± 20.8 136.3 ± 19.9 134.8 ± 19.7 135.5 ± 20.4  
  Unadjusted β (95% CI) Ref − 0.74 (− 1.37, − 0.11) − 2.24 (− 3.31, − 1.17) − 1.55 (− 2.54, − 0.56) < 0.0001
  Model 1 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 1.02 (0.40, 1.63) 0.52 (− 0.52, 1.56) 0.84 (− 0.12, 1.80) 0.01
  Model 2 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.94 (0.32, 1.55) 0.61 (− 0.43, 1.65) 0.87 (− 0.09, 1.84) 0.01
  Model 3 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.19 (− 0.40, 0.79) − 0.43 (− 1.44, 0.57) − 0.60 (− 1.54, 0.34) 0.24
N. participants (females)a 21,302 6881 1528 1632  
 SBP, mmHg 135.3 ± 21.8 133.5 ± 21.5 130.3 ± 20.4 129.3 ± 20.6  
  Unadjusted β (95% CI) Ref − 1.74 (− 2.33, − 1.15) − 5.01 (− 6.13, − 3.89) − 6.01 (− 7.09, − 4.92) < 0.0001
  Model 1 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.52 (− 0.04, 1.08) − 0.92 (− 1.98, 0.14) − 1.44 (− 2.47, − 0.41) 0.03
  Model 2 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.59 (0.04, 1.15) − 0.69 (− 1.75, 0.37) − 1.23 (− 2.27, − 0.20) 0.12
  Model 3 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.46 (− 0.08, 0.99) − 0.37 (− 1.39, 0.64) − 1.06 (− 2.06, − 0.07) 0.03
  1. In model 1, odds ratios were adjusted for age (continuous) and sex. Model 2 included additional adjustment for education level (no formal school, primary school, middle school and high school or above), household income (≤ 19,999 yuan, 20,000–34,999 yuan, ≥ 35,000 yuan), Model 3 included additional adjustment for cigarettes consumption (never, occasional, former, and current), alcohol consumption (never, occasional, former, and current), physical activity (continuous), meat consumption (daily and non-daily), fruit consumption (daily and non-daily), BMI (continuous), WC (continuous), snoring (never, occasional, and habitual snoring), sleep duration (continuous)
  2. aWithout adjustment for sex