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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted β coefficients for diastolic blood pressure associated with frequency of spicy food consumption among adults in Zhejiang

From: Association between frequency of spicy food consumption and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China

  Frequency of spicy food consumption Ptrend
Never < 1 times/week 1–2 times/week ≥ 3 times/week
N. participants (total) 34,513 12,781 3109 3513  
 DBP, mmHg 80.3 ± 10.7 80.6 ± 10.8 80.3 ± 10.7 80.5 ± 11.1  
  Unadjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.30 (0.09, 0.52) 0.06 (− 0.34, 0.45) 0.20 (− 0.17, 0.57) 0.08
  Model 1 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.21 (− 0.01, 0.43) − 0.09 (− 0.48, 0.31) − 0.01 (− 0.38, 0.36) 0.75
  Model 2 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.18 (− 0.03, 0.40) − 0.02 (− 0.41, 0.38) 0.04 (− 0.33, 0.41) 0.55
  Model 3 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref − 0.04 (− 0.26, 0.17) − 0.23 (− 0.61, 0.15) − 0.39 (− 0.75, − 0.02) 0.03
N. participants (males)a 13,211 5900 1581 1881  
 DBP, mmHg 81.5 ± 11.0 82.0 ± 11.0 81.8 ± 11.0 82.1 ± 11.5  
  Unadjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.45 (0.11, 0.79) 0.30 (− 0.27, 0.87) 0.65 (0.11, 1.18) 0.004
  Model 1 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.46 (0.11, 0.80) 0.31 (− 0.27, 0.89) 0.66 (0.12, 1.19) 0.004
  Model 2 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.36 (0.02, 0.71) 0.36 (− 0.22, 0.94) 0.68 (0.14, 1.22) 0.004
  Model 3 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref − 0.07 (− 0.40, 0.27) − 0.24 (− 0.80, 0.32) − 0.16 (− 0.68, 0.36) 0.38
N. participants (females)a 21,302 6881 1528 1632  
 DBP, mmHg 79.5 ± 10.4 79.4 ± 10.4 78.8 ± 10.3 78.6 ± 10.3  
  Unadjusted β (95% CI) Ref − 0.11 (− 0.40, 0.17) − 0.70 (− 1.24, − 0.16) − 0.97 (− 1.49, − 0.44)  < 0.0001
  Model 1 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.02 (− 0.26, 0.31) − 0.45 (− 0.99, 0.09) − 0.69 (− 1.22, − 0.16) 0.01
  Model 2 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref 0.05 (− 0.23, 0.34) − 0.35 (− 0.89, 0.19) − 0.59 (− 1.12, − 0.06) 0.04
  Model 3 adjusted β (95% CI) Ref − 0.03 (− 0.30, 0.25) − 0.25 (− 0.78, 0.28) − 0.57 (− 1.08, − 0.05) 0.04
  1. In model 1, β coefficients were adjusted for age (continuous) and sex. Model 2 included additional adjustment for education level (no formal school, primary school, middle school and high school or above), household income (≤ 19,999 yuan, 20,000–34,999 yuan, ≥ 35,000 yuan), Model 3 included additional adjustment for cigarettes consumption (never, occasional, former, and current), alcohol consumption (never, occasional, former, and current), physical activity (continuous), meat consumption (daily and non-daily), fruit consumption (daily and non-daily), BMI (continuous), WC (continuous), snoring (never, occasional, and habitual snoring), sleep duration (continuous)
  2. aWithout adjustment for sex