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Table 5 Adjusted odds ratios for hypertension associated with consuming spicy food daily versus never according to participant characteristics

From: Association between frequency of spicy food consumption and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China

  N. hypertension ORs (95% CI) Pheterogeneity
Age group (years)    0.67
 30–49 4139 0.76 (0.64–0.90)  
 50–79 12,222 0.72 (0.61–0.86)  
Education level    0.51
 No formal education 8739 0.86 (0.70–1.04)  
 Primary or above 7622 0.79 (0.67–0.92)  
Household income    0.69
 < 35,000 (yuan) 10,602 0.80 (0.69–0.93)  
 ≥ 35,000 (yuan) 5759 0.84 (0.68–1.04)  
Physical activity (MET-h/d)    0.06
 < 30 9344 0.72 (0.61–0.86)  
 ≥ 30 7017 0.91 (0.77–1.08)  
Smoking status    0.14
 Current smokers 4059 0.90 (0.75–1.08)  
 Non-current smokers 12,302 0.75 (0.63–0.88)  
Alcohol status    0.02
 Current drinkers 2654 0.98 (0.80–1.20)  
 Non-current drinkers 13,707 0.72 (0.62–0.84)  
Meat consumption    0.41
 Daily 2006 0.75 (0.60–0.94)  
 Non-daily 14,355 0.84 (0.73–0.97)  
Fruit consumption    0.59
 Daily 795 0.88 (0.63–1.22)  
 Non-daily 15,566 0.80 (0.70–0.91)  
BMI (kg/m2)    0.34
 < 25 11,260 0.86 (0.74–0.99)  
 ≥ 25 5101 0.76 (0.61–0.94)  
WC    0.97
 Normal 7103 0.81 (0.67–0.97)  
 Excessive 9258 0.81 (0.69–0.95)  
Sleep duration (hours/day)    0.29
 < 7.6 7377 0.75 (0.61–0.91)  
 ≥ 7.6 8984 0.85 (0.73–0.99)  
Menopause status    0.94
 Menopausal 6841 0.80 (0.59–1.08)  
 Non-menopausal 2777 0.79 (0.61–1.01)  
  1. Odds ratios were adjusted for age (continuous) and sex, education level (no formal school, primary school, middle school and high school or above), household income (≤ 19,999 yuan, 20,000–34 999 yuan, ≥ 35,000 yuan), cigarettes consumption (never, occasional, former, and current), alcohol consumption (never, occasional, former, and current), physical activity (continuous), meat consumption (daily and non-daily), fruit consumption (daily and non-daily), BMI (continuous), WC (continuous), snoring (never, occasional, and habitual), sleep duration (continuous)
  2. ORs odds ratios, CI confidence intervals, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference