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Fig. 3 | Nutrition & Metabolism

Fig. 3

From: The impact of gut microbiota metabolites on cellular bioenergetics and cardiometabolic health

Fig. 3

Effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on mitochondrial bioenergetics. A At higher concentrations, H2S binds to complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase), thereby inhibiting mitochondrial electron transport and blocking ATP production. B A persulfide (-SSH) is formed on the cysteine residue (-SH) of coenzyme A in the presence of H2S, which blocks the oxidation and utilization of butyrate. C At low concentrations, mitochondria oxidize H2S by the action of sulfide SQR and transfer electrons through coenzyme Q and complexes III and IV to oxygen, thereby promoting ATP production at complex V (ATP synthase). Pathways have been simplified to highlight key end-products. CI-V; complexes I-V, e; electrons, Q; coenzyme Q, cyt C; cytochrome c, CoA; coenzyme A, SQR; sulfide quinone reductase

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