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Table 1 Characteristics of participants according to the presence of MAFLD

From: Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic associated fatty liver disease in the contemporary South China population

Variables Total (n = 5377) Non-MAFLD (n = 3806) MAFLD (n = 1571) p value
Demographic variables
Men (%) 2173 (40.4) 1618 (42.5) 555 (35.3) < 0.001
Age (years) 67 (60–71) 67 (57–71) 67 (63–71) < 0.001
Married (%) 4744 (88.4) 3363 (88.5) 1381 (88.2) 0.825
High school and above (%) 963 (17.9) 654 (17.2) 309 (19.7) 0.033
High-income (%) 2831 (53.5) 1931 (51.5) 900 (58.5) < 0.001
Chronic disease
Hypertension (%) 3136 (58.3) 2022 (53.1) 1114 (70.9) < 0.001
T2DM (%) 830 (15.4) 438 (11.5) 392 (25.0) < 0.001
Metabolic dysregulation (%) 1888 (35.2) 913 (24.1) 975 (62.2) < 0.001
Overweight/obesity (%) 3419 (63.7) 2000 (52.7) 1419 (90.5) < 0.001
Central obesity (%) 3001 (56.0) 1694 (44.6) 1307 (83.4) < 0.001
Drugs
Antihypertensive (%) 1771 (33.1) 1060 (28.0) 711 (45.6) < 0.001
Hypoglycemic drugs (%) 628 (11.8) 335 (8.9) 293 (18.8) < 0.001
Lipid-lowering drugs (%) 152 (2.8) 96 (2.5) 56 (3.6) 0.042
Physical index
BMI (kg/m2) 24.31 ± 3.52 23.3 ± 3.12 26.75 ± 3.22 < 0.001
WC (cm) 85.48 ± 9.54 82.98 ± 8.87 91.53 ± 8.32 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 136.77 ± 19.50 135.10 ± 19.61 140.80 ± 18.65 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 81.52 ± 10.84 80.90 ± 10.89 83.01 ± 10.58 < 0.001
Pulse pressure (mmHg) 55.25 ± 15.36 54.20 ± 15.15 57.79 ± 15.58 < 0.001
MAP (mmHg) 99.94 ± 12.36 98.97 ± 12.5 102.28 ± 11.69 < 0.001
Clinical index     < 0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 4.95 (4.55–5.52) 4.85 (4.48–5.33) 5.27 (4.77–6.03) < 0.001
ALT (IU/L) 20 (16–27) 19 (15–25) 23 (18–32) < 0.001
AST (IU/L) 22 (18–26) 21 (18–25) 22 (19–27) < 0.001
TG (mmol/L) 1.34 (0.96–1.95) 1.20 (0.88–1.69) 1.80 (1.29–2.53) < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 5.23 ± 1.07 5.2 ± 1.07 5.31 ± 1.07 < 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.36 ± 0.34 1.4 ± 0.36 1.25 ± 0.27 < 0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.21 ± 0.91 3.19 ± 0.91 3.27 ± 0.92 0.003
UA (μmol/L) 364.68 ± 98.07 353.02 ± 95.35 392.92 ± 98.86 < 0.001
Lifestyle
Current smoking (%) 724 (13.5) 584 (15.3) 140 (8.9) < 0.001
Drinking (%) 267 (5.0) 182 (4.8) 85 (5.4) 0.366
Physical activity (MET-min/week) 1779 (1386–3465) 2076 (1386–3906) 1386 (1386–3066) < 0.001
Frequency of soups (%)     < 0.001
 < 1 per month 894 (16.8) 580 (15.4) 314 (20.2)  
 < 1 per week 166 (3.1) 113 (3.0) 53 (3.4)  
 1–2 per week 712 (13.4) 495 (13.1) 217 (14.0)  
 3–4 per week 2083 (39.1) 1588 (42.0) 495 (31.9)  
 5–6 per week 730 (13.7) 530 (14.0) 200 (12.9)  
 Daily 745 (14.0) 471 (12.5) 274 (17.6)  
  1. Values were means ± SD or medians in cases of continuous variables and numbers (percentages) in case of categorical data. For differences across the groups of calculated with χ2 test and analysis of variance for categorical and continuous data, respectively
  2. MAFLD metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, FPG fasting plasma glucose, LDL low-density lipoprotein, TG triglyceride, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, TC total cholesterol, HDL high-density lipoprotein, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, SD standard deviation