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Table 2 Effect of betanin on body weight, FBG and serum insulin levels

From: The anti-diabetic effects of betanin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through modulating AMPK/SIRT1/NF-κB signaling pathway

Variables Normal control Normal + Betanin (40 mg/kg) Diabetic control Diabetic + betanin (10 mg/kg) Diabetic + betanin (20 mg/kg) Diabetic + betanin (40 mg/kg) Diabetic + glibenclamide
Body weight (g)        
Initial 192.67 ± 32.07 196.80 ± 26.31 197.60 ± 45.00 197.00 ± 10.42 186.00 ± 23.53 182.20 ± 15.45 184.00 ± 8.06
Final 204.50 ± 29.90 205.20 ± 28.62 150.60 ± 16.47†† 160.50 ± 9.25 176.60 ± 21.09 151.40 ± 19.97 182.80 ± 9.34
FBG (mg/dl)        
Day 7 86.00 ± 12.18 74.80 ± 7.36 383.60 ± 39.44††† 348.50 ± 11.03 355.00 ± 38.81 392.60 ± 52.32 334.00 ± 13.13
Day 14 94.83 ± 5.34 73.80 ± 8.58 413.60 ± 41.91††† 319.00 ± 5.89ϕϕϕ,** 317.80 ± 35.15ϕϕϕ,** 394.00 ± 43.52### 275.80 ± 12.85ϕϕϕ
Day 21 94.17 ± 9.28 75.80 ± 4.21 464.20 ± 52.01††† 283.25 ± 6.75ϕϕϕ,*** 280.80 ± 27.52ϕϕϕ,*** 404.60 ± 49.83### 228.00 ± 25.61ϕϕϕ
Day 28 92.67 ± 3.67 75.00 ± 2.91 499.80 ± 42.69††† 259.00 ± 3.37ϕϕϕ,*** 235.00 ± 16.57ϕϕϕ,*** 471.80 ± 20.56### 141.00 ± 21.29ϕϕϕ
Insulin (mIU/L) 24.67 ± 1.37 23.20 ± 2.77 9.00 ± 1.58††† 15.00 ± 1.82ϕϕ 19.00 ± 2.74ϕϕϕ,#,*** 11.20 ± 1.92 14.40 ± 1.95ϕϕ
  1. Data were expressed as mean ± SD
  2. FBG: fasting blood glucose
  3. ††P < 0.01, †††P < 0.001 versus normal control group
  4. ϕϕP < 0.01, ϕϕϕP < 0.001 versus diabetic control group
  5. #P < 0.05, ###P < 0.001 versus diabetic + glibenclamide group
  6. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 versus diabetic + betanin 40 mg/kg group (differences among diabetic rats received betanin)