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Table 3 Effect of betanin on serum lipid profile and liver enzymes levels

From: The anti-diabetic effects of betanin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through modulating AMPK/SIRT1/NF-κB signaling pathway

Variables Normal control Normal + Betanin (40 mg/kg) Diabetic control Diabetic + betanin (10 mg/kg) Diabetic + betanin (20 mg/kg) Diabetic + betanin (40 mg/kg) Diabetic + glibenclamide
TC (mg/dL) 72.33 ± 5.35 70.60 ± 9.21 129.20 ± 8.11††† 115.50 ± 11.90## 98.40 ± 11.26ϕϕϕ,** 124.80 ± 7.59### 91.00 ± 11.25ϕϕϕ
LDL-C, (mg/dL) 15.83 ± 3.71 18.80 ± 5.40 57.00 ± 3.61††† 35.50 ± 2.64ϕϕϕ,*** 30.00 ± 2.74ϕϕϕ,*** 50.60 ± 5.94### 29.20 ± 4.82ϕϕϕ
HDL-C, (mg/dL) 43.83 ± 5.74 47.80 ± 4.76 23.40 ± 2.97††† 35.00 ± 3.56ϕϕ,*** 35.20 ± 2.49ϕϕ,*** 20.60 ± 2.07### 40.40 ± 2.41ϕϕϕ
TG, (mg/dL) 105.33 ± 52.83 91.20 ± 18.70 209.00 ± 63.28†† 113.75 ± 17.56ϕ 98.60 ± 23.03ϕϕ 165.40 ± 59.47 99.60 ± 10.45ϕϕ
ALT, (U/L) 83.17 ± 12.32 82.40 ± 9.48 152.60 ± 10.97††† 138.75 ± 7.93 123.20 ± 9.68ϕϕ,** 148.80 ± 6.30 130.40 ± 12.70ϕ
AST, (U/L) 104.17 ± 17.52 105.60 ± 18.23 208.60 ± 25.28††† 141.25 ± 10.69ϕϕϕ,*** 132.20 ± 10.64ϕϕϕ,*** 198.00 ± 7.55### 140.20 ± 15.83ϕϕϕ
  1. Data were expressed as mean ± SD
  2. TC: total cholesterol, LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG: triglyceride, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, AST: aspartate aminotransferase
  3. ††P < 0.01, †††P < 0.001 versus normal control group
  4. ϕP < 0.05, ϕϕP < 0.01, ϕϕϕP < 0.001 versus diabetic control group
  5. ###P < 0.001 versus diabetic + glibenclamide group
  6. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 versus diabetic + betanin 40 mg/kg group (differences among diabetic rats received betanin)