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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants according to CVD events

From: The association between dietary fats and the incidence risk of cardiovascular outcomes: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Baseline characteristics CVD+
(n = 198)
CVD
(n = 2611)
P_value
Age, year 57.06 ± 10.25 38.22 ± 13.36  < 0.001
Male, % 65.7 42.3  < 0.001
Current smoker, % 16.2 8.8 0.003
Low physical activity*, % 40.2 38.2 0.591
Body mass index, kg/m2 28.48 ± 4.61 26.84 ± 4.88  < 0.001
Waist circumference, cm 97.91 ± 10.67 88.81 ± 13.27  < 0.001
Hypertension, % 78.9 21.1  < 0.001
TG to HDL ratio 4.26 (2.98–6.37) 2.82 (1.79–4.53)  < 0.001
Serum TG (mg/dL) 165 (123–211) 117 (81–170)  < 0.001
Serum cholesterol (mg/dL) 208.7 ± 42.14 184.4 ± 37.98  < 0.001
Serum LDL-C (mg/dL) 134.0 ± 36.25 113.7 ± 32.16  < 0.001
Serum HDL-C (mg/dL) 39.48 ± 8.59 43.14 ± 10.40  < 0.001
Total energy intake, kcal/day 2240 ± 726 2257 ± 719 0.757
Total fat intake, g/day 66.59 (51.90–88.95) 73.77 (56.67–96.53) 0.009
Total protein intake, g/day 72.40 (59.44–88.77) 72.86 (57.66–93.05) 0.659
Total carbohydrate intake, g/day 314 (253–395) 308 (241–388) 0.315
Total saturated fats intake, g/day 21.10 (16.99–27.97) 24.23 (18.40–32.44)  < 0.001
Lauric acid (12:0), g/day 0.63 (0.43–0.87) 0.74 (0.50–1.06)  < 0.001
Myristic acid (14:0), g/day 1.75 (1.14–2.41) 1.97 (1.37–2.71) 0.001
Palmitic acid (16:0), g/day 10.44 (8.01–14.14) 11.37 (8.59–14.84) 0.060
Stearic acid (18:0), g/day 4.15 (3.14–5.40) 4.65 (3.48–6.23)  < 0.001
Total mono-unsaturated fats intake, g/day 22.48 (17.62–30.42) 25.34 (19.19–33.42) 0.003
Total poly-unsaturated fats intake, g/day 14.10 (10.30–19.65) 15.22 (10.76–20.03) 0.103
Total omega-3, g/day 1.14 (0.74–1.56) 1.18 (0.81–1.60) 0.320
Total omega-6, g/day 11.92 (8.53–17.05) 13.10 (9.08–17.41) 0.080
Omega-6/ omega-3 ratio 11.11 (9.05–13.51) 11.39 (9.35–13.41) 0.370
Animal fats, g/day 33.43 (26.03–45.33) 38.78 (28.77–52.53)  < 0.001
Plant-base fats, g/day 32.51 (20.73–43.86) 33.73 (21.90–45.45) 0.285
Total cholesterol intake, mg/day 172 (135–242) 197 (142–273) 0.005
Tea and coffee intake, mL/day 750 (251–1000) 501 (251–758) 0.024
  1. Values are shown as mean ± SD and number (%), for continuous and categorical variables, respectively
  2. TG Triglyceride, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol
  3. Values are shown as median (Interquartile range)
  4. *Modifiable activity questionnaire (MAQ) scores ≤ 600 METs-min/week was considered as low physical activity