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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Prevalence and prognostic significance of malnutrition in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease: a cohort study

Characteristic Risk of Malnutrition p-value
Overall Absent Mild Moderate Severe
(n = 12,898) (n = 5093) (n = 5984) (n = 1703) (n = 118)
Demographic characteristics
Age (years) 63.9 ± 10.1 62.0 ± 9.9 64.5 ± 10.0 67.1 ± 10.0 67.8 ± 9.9  < 0.001
Female 3852 (29.9) 1755 (34.5) 1638 (27.4) 434 (25.5) 25 (21.2)  < 0.001
Medical history and Clinical condition
T2DM 12,115 (93.9) 4782 (93.9) 5623 ( 94.0) 1598 ( 93.8) 112 ( 94.9) 0.968
T1DM 12 (0.1) 7 (0.1) 4 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 0.605
Anemia 5066 (39.3) 1221 (24.0) 2513 (42.0) 1228 (72.1) 104 (88.1)  < 0.001
Stroke 995 (7.7) 322 (6.3) 469 (7.8) 186 (10.9) 18 (15.3)  < 0.001
Hypertension 8825 (68.4) 3429 (67.3) 4106 (68.6) 1201 (70.5) 89 (75.4) 0.028
CKD 3153 (24.4) 789 (15.5) 1476 (24.7) 798 (46.9) 90 (76.3)  < 0.001
CHF 1553 (12.0) 379 (7.4) 686 (11.5) 435 (25.5) 53 (44.9)  < 0.001
AF 388 (3.0) 119 (2.3) 180 (3.0) 83 (4.9) 6 (5.1)  < 0.001
Dialysis history 84 (0.7) 6 (0.1) 23 (0.4) 40 (2.3) 15 (12.7)  < 0.001
AMI 2361 (18.3) 633 (12.4) 1061 (17.7) 616 (36.2) 51 (43.2)  < 0.001
Coronary vessels involvement
Two-vessel disease 128 (1.0) 53 (1.0) 65 (1.1) 8 (0.5) 2 (1.7) 0.112
Three-vessel disease 3365 (26.1) 1230 (24.2) 1572 (26.3) 528 (31.0) 35 (29.7)  < 0.001
Four-vessel disease 2 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.952
Procedure
PCI 9748 (75.6) 3793 (74.5) 4517 (75.5) 1344 (78.9) 94 (79.7) 0.002
Laboratory examination
Albumin (g/L) 36.18 ± 4.56 38.93 ± 2.70 35.83 ± 3.74 30.00 ± 3.86 24.54 ± 3.32  < 0.001
Lymphocyte(109/L) 1.94 ± 0.72 2.25 ± 0.63 1.86 ± 0.68 1.36 ± 0.60 0.90 ± 0.38  < 0.001
TG (mmol/L) 1.50 (1.10, 2.14) 1.79 (1.32, 2.58) 1.40 (1.03, 1.91) 1.20 (0.92, 1.63) 1.14 (0.89, 1.47)  < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 4.45 ± 1.24 5.06 ± 1.08 4.11 ± 1.17 3.89 ± 1.18 3.41 ± 1.05  < 0.001
LDL-C(mmol/L) 2.72 ± 0.96 3.14 ± 0.87 2.47 ± 0.91 2.35 ± 0.92 2.05 ± 0.81  < 0.001
HDL-C(mmol/L) 0.95 ± 0.25 1.01 ± 0.24 0.93 ± 0.24 0.87 ± 0.25 0.75 ± 0.23  < 0.001
CREA(umol/L) 88.10 (73.00, 110.43) 82.53 (69.00, 99.00) 89.10 (74.00,110.00) 108.00 (83.00, 150.00) 150.90 (104.00, 303.30)  < 0.001
eGFR(ml/min/1.73m2) 74.90 ± 28.34 81.50 ± 25.84 74.73 ± 27.38 60.31 ± 30.54 41.66 ± 27.63  < 0.001
hs-CRP (mg/L) 4.45 ± 1.24 2.72 (1.04, 6.66) 3.39 (1.04, 9.71) 14.10 (3.65, 40.50) 39.70 (12.92, 78.15)  < 0.001
Hb (g/L) 129.97 ± 18.18 135.77 ± 15.48 129.43 ± 16.99 116.48 ± 19.95 101.54 ± 22.11  < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 7.88 ± 1.70 7.89 ± 1.65 7.86 ± 1.71 7.93 ± 1.80 7.78 ± 1.88 0.572
FBG (mmol/L) 9.78 ± 4.62 9.52 ± 4.31 9.73 ± 4.69 10.57 ± 4.93 12.07 ± 6.61  < 0.001
2hPBG (mmol/L) 12.83 ± 4.41 13.24 ± 4.39 12.67 ± 4.46 12.12 ± 4.12 11.09 ± 5.14  < 0.001
LVEF (%) 57.73 ± 12.74 60.36 ± 11.45 57.37 ± 12.79 51.68 ± 13.76 49.67 ± 13.20  < 0.001
Treatment during hospitalization
OADs 7718 (61.1) 3210 (63.5) 3626 (61.9) 838 (51.9) 44 (42.3)  < 0.001
ACEI/ARB 5807 (46.0) 2363 (46.8) 2688 (45.9) 714 (44.2) 42 (40.4) 0.193
β-blockers 10,400 (82.3) 4247 (84.1) 4803 (82.0) 1266 (78.3) 84 (80.8)  < 0.001
CCB 3398 (26.9) 1333 (26.4) 1569 (26.8) 458 (28.3) 38 (36.5) 0.062
Statins 12,079 (95.6) 4864 (96.3) 5603 (95.6) 1520 (94.1) 92 (88.5)  < 0.001
Aspirin 11,623 (92.0) 4697 (93.0) 5393 (92.0) 1450 (89.7) 83 (79.8)  < 0.001
Diuretic 2203 (17.4) 539 (10.7) 986 (16.8) 620 (38.4) 58 (55.8)  < 0.001
  1. T2DM Type 2 diabetes mellitus, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, CKD chronic kidney disease, CHF congestive heart failure, AF atrial fibrillation, AMI acute myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, CREA creatinine, eGFR estimated glomerular filtrationrate, hs-CRP hypersensitive C-reactive protein, Hb hemoglobin, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, FBG Fasting blood glucose, 2hPBG 2 hours postprandial blood glucose, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, OADs oral antidiabetic drugs, ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, CCB calcium channel blocker