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Table 3 Hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes according to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) status in older individuals (2015–2018)

From: Fluctuations in waist circumference increase diabetes risk: a 4-year cohort study in 61,587 older adults

  Remained normal/underweight Normal/underweight to overweight/obese Overweight/obese to normal/underweight Remained overweight/obese
Number 22,133 (35.9%) 5741 (9.3%) 4110 (6.7%) 29,603 (48.1%)
New cases of diabetes (%) 322 (1.5%) 164 (2.9%) 103 (2.5%) 825 (2.8%)
No. per 1000 person-years 4.1 8.1 7.5 7.8
HR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.96 (1.62–2.37) 1.72 (1.38–2.15) 1.88 (1.65–2.14)
  Retained normal waist circumference Normal waist circumference to abdominal obesity Abdominal obesity to normal waist circumference Remained abdominally obese
Number 30,030 (48.8%) 8107 (13.2%) 5086 (8.2%) 18,382 (29.8%)
No. new cases of diabetes (%) 524 (1.7%) 224 (2.8%) 121 (2.4%) 545 (3.0%)
No. per 1000 person-years 4.9 7.8 6.7 8.4
HR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.58 (1.36–1.85) 1.36 (1.11–1.65) 1.66 (1.48–1.88)
  1. *P < 0.001, CI, confidence interval
  2. The HRs were adjusted for confounders including baseline age, ALT and TBIL levels, alcohol consumption, and statin use