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Table 5 Hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes according to baseline body mass index (BMI) and frequency of physical exercise in older individuals (2015–2018)

From: Fluctuations in waist circumference increase diabetes risk: a 4-year cohort study in 61,587 older adults

  Never Less than once a week More than once a week Everyday
Number
 BMI < 24 kg/m2 6315 1477 6279 13,803
 24 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2 4972 1352 5569 13,370
 BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 1726 446 1923 4355
No. of new cases of diabetes (%)
 BMI < 24 kg/m2 105 (1.7%) 24 (1.6%) 101 (1.6%) 256 (1.9%)
 24 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2 146 (2.9%) 42 (3.1%) 141 (2.5%) 312 (2.3%)
 BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 56 (3.2%) 16 (3.6%) 62 (3.2%) 153 (3.5%)
No. per 1000 person-years
 BMI < 24 kg/m2 4.7 3.8 4.6 5.2
 24 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2 8.2 8.7 7.1 6.6
 BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 9.1 10.1 9.0 9.9
HR (95% CI)
 BMI < 24 kg/m2 1.00 0.98 (0.63–1.53) 0.98 (0.74–1.29) 1.16 (0.92–1.45)
 24 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2 1.00 1.08 (0.77–1.52) 0.88 (0.69–1.11) 0.81 (0.67–0.99)
 BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 1.00 0.76 (0.48–1.21) 0.48 (0.18–1.28) 0.67 (0.38–1.16)
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. The HRs were adjusted for confounders including baseline age, ALT and TBIL levels, alcohol consumption, and statin use