Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants in sex-specific samples

From: Associations of body shapes with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk in middle-aged and elderly Chinese

  Total Women Men P value
/ / Range / Range
n (%) 6240 3961 (63.4) / 2279 (36.3) / /
Age (years) 62.2 ± 8.74 61.9 ± 8.56 44.3–91.2 62.9 ± 9.03 40.1–94.9  < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134.8 ± 17.3 135.1 ± 17.7 66.3–224.7 134.2 ± 16.5 89.0–213.3 0.03
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76.3 ± 9.5 75.4 ± 9.5 42.0–127.3 77.8 ± 9.7 42.3–124.7  < 0.0001
Current smoking, n (%) 1224 (19.2) 20 (0.5) / 1204 (51.5) /  < 0.0001
Current drinking, n (%) 900 (14.1) 45 (1.11) / 855 (36.5) /  < 0.0001
Physical activity (MET-h/wk) 18 (4.5–21.0) 21.0 (6.0–21.0) 0–2380 15.0 (0.0–21.0) 0–489 0.60
Biochemical measurements       
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 6.15 ± 1.47 6.06 ± 1.34 1.40–20.8 6.29 ± 1.66 4.21–20.0  < 0.0001
HOMA-IR 1.89 (1.27–2.83) 1.97 (1.34–2.91) 0.13–224 1.74 (1.13–2.61) 0.19–226  < 0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.95 ± 0.96 6.54 ± 0.96 2.44–19.3 4.95 ± 0.89 2.68–8.42 0.26
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.67 ± 4.13 3.83 ± 5.16 1.51–10.9 3.39 ± 0.71 1.14–6.07  < 0.0001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.34 ± 0.29 1.39 ± 0.30 0.60–3.28 1.25 ± 0.29 0.68–3.08  < 0.0001
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.51 (1.09–2.14) 1.55 (1.12–2.19) 0.45–46.2 1.43 (1.03–2.04) 0.38–15.96  < 0.0001
Anthropometric measurements       
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 5.2 25.0 ± 5.9 15.0–35.1 25.1 ± 3.5 17.6–37.2 0.41
Waist circumference (cm) 83.6 ± 9.9 81.8 ± 10.0 30.0–163.0 86.7 ± 9.8 35.0–164.0  < 0.0001
Neck circumference (cm) 34.4 ± 3.2 33.0 ± 3.2 18.4–79.0 36.9 ± 3.3 25.2–70.0  < 0.0001
Hip circumference (cm) 93.9 ± 7.7 93.2 ± 8.0 25.0–201.0 95.0 ± 7.1 29.3–166.2  < 0.0001
Thigh circumference (cm) 49.2 ± 5.4 48.9 ± 5.4 16.0–105.0 49.8 ± 5.3 24.6–99.2  < 0.0001
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.89 ± 0.11 0.88 ± 0.12 0.31–3.00 0.91 ± 0.09 0.39–2.39  < 0.0001
Neck-to-hip ratio 0.37 ± 0.05 0.36 ± 0.05 0.17–1.30 0.39 ± 0.04 0.24–1.24  < 0.0001
Waist-to-thigh ratio 1.71 ± 0.22 1.69 ± 0.23 0.58–4.91 1.75 ± 0.21 0.69–3.77  < 0.0001
Neck-to-thigh ratio 0.71 ± 0.09 0.68 ± 0.09 0.32–2.67 0.75 ± 0.09 0.40–2.14  < 0.0001
Waist-to-neck ratio 2.43 ± 0.24 2.48 ± 0.25 0.40–4.97 2.35 ± 0.23 1.00–4.08  < 0.0001
Hip-to-thigh ratio 1.92 ± 0.21 1.92 ± 0.22 0.54–6.03 1.92 ± 0.20 0.51–4.16 0.82
Cardiometabolic disorders       
Insulin resistance, n (%) 1814 (29.1) 1246 (31.5) / 568 (24.9) /  < 0.0001
Metabolic syndrome, n (%) 2199 (35.2) 1614 (40.8) / 585 (26.7) /  < 0.0001
Elevated fasting blood glucose, including diabetes, n (%) 2423 (38.8) 1467 (37.0) / 956 (42.0) / 0.0001
High blood pressure, n (%) 4424 (70.9) 2795 (70.6) / 1629 (71.5) / 0.44
High triglyceride, n (%) 2580 (41.4) 1723 (43.5) / 857 (37.6) /  < 0.0001
Low HDL cholesterol, n (%) 2102 (33.7) 1595 (40.3) / 507 (22.3) /  < 0.0001
  1. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation (SD), or medians (inter-quartile ranges) for skewed variables, or numbers (proportions) for categorical variables. P values were calculated from one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. Insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.61, which is the cut-off point for the highest quartile of the total participants
  2. MET, metabolic equivalent task; HOMA-IR indicates homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; LDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol