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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of populations with and without NAFLD

From: Association of serum methionine metabolites with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Overall NAFLD (n = 1446) Non-NAFLD (n = 1368) P value
Demographics
Age (years) 60.84 ± 5.76 61.97 ± 5.45 60.71 ± 6.06 0.221
Sex (male) 868 (30.85) 468 (32.37) 400 (29.24) 0.073
Anthropometrics
BMI (kg/m2) 23.61 ± 3.16 25.01 ± 3.00 22.13 ± 2.60 < 0.001
Waist (cm) 84.91 ± 8.80 88.34 ± 8.15 81.29 ± 7.98 < 0.001
WHR 0.92 ± 0.07 0.94 ± 0.06 0.90 ± 0.07 < 0.001
Trunk fat percentage (%) 33.62 ± 6.74 35.65 ± 5.85 31.49 ± 6.95 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 125.21 ± 17.93 128.37 ± 17.51 121.88 ± 17.76 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 75.57 ± 10.37 77.56 ± 10.16 73.48 ± 10.18 < 0.001
Blood biochemical indices
Fasting glucose (mM) 4.80 [4.39, 5.31] 4.85 [4.43, 5.41] 4.72 [4.33, 5.21] < 0.001
Fasting insulin (μU/mL) 7.77 [5.39, 11.21] 9.97 [7.00, 13.86] 6.08 [4.42, 8.27] < 0.001
HOMA-IR 1.67 [1.11, 2.54] 2.18 [1.49, 3.18] 1.30 [0.90, 1.84] < 0.001
AST/ALT 1.20 [0.96, 1.45] 1.09 [0.87, 1.33] 1.30 [1.08, 1.56] < 0.001
TC (mM) 5.59 ± 1.05 5.56 ± 1.03 5.63 ± 1.07 0.059
TG (mM) 1.26 [0.90, 1.78] 1.44 [1.04, 2.06] 1.08 [0.81, 1.50] < 0.001
HDL-C (mM) 1.43 ± 0.41 1.32 ± 0.36 1.55 ± 0.43 < 0.001
LDL-C (mM) 3.60 ± 0.91 3.62 ± 0.90 3.57 ± 0.91 0.140
UA (μM) 350.50 ± 84.32 364.68 ± 83.31 335.49 ± 82.80 < 0.001
ALP (U/L) 70.07 [58.87, 83.07] 71.25 [59.47, 84.08] 68.85 [58.23, 81.76]  < 0.001
hsCRP (mg/L) 0.96 [0.57, 1.94] 1.19 [0.67, 2.44] 0.77 [0.48, 1.38] < 0.001
Serum methionine metabolites
SAM (nM) 88.07 [75.04, 110.04] 91.06 [76.90, 111.19] 85.67 [73.62, 108.74] < 0.001
SAH (nM) 15.70 [11.46, 24.55] 17.74 [12.09, 26.24] 14.50 [10.84, 22.64] < 0.001
Hcy (μM) 13.06 [11.33, 16.39] 13.61 [11.66, 17.43] 12.51 [10.97, 15.35] < 0.001
SAM/SAH 5.68 [4.18, 7.20] 5.31 [3.99, 7.01] 6.09 [4.47, 7.42] < 0.001
Lifestyle
Physical activities (MET/day) 34.05 ± 5.65 33.69 ± 5.55 34.43 ± 5.73 < 0.001
Current smoking 313 (11.12) 164 (11.34) 149 (10.89) 0.704
Current drinking 204 (7.25) 109 (7.54) 95 (6.94) 0.540
Methionine intake (mg/day) 1131.37 ± 283.31 1137.89 ± 290.34 1124.85 ± 276.24 0.223
Folate intake (ng/day) 210.56 ± 83.95 212.12 ± 92.80 208.91 ± 73.44 0.308
Vitamin B12 intake (ng/day) 1.43 ± 1.01 1.45 ± 1.15 1.41 ± 0.85 0.257
History of disease
Hypertension 825 (29.35) 518 (35.85) 307 (22.47) < 0.001
Diabetes 213 (7.58) 127 (8.79) 86 (6.30) 0.019
Dyslipidemia 1099 (39.05) 647 (44.74) 452 (33.04) < 0.001
Heart diseases 559 (19.91) 302 (20.91) 257 (18.84) 0.330
  1. Values are shown as mean ± standard deviation, median [25th, 75th percentiles] or frequencies (%)
  2. Statistical analysis was performed using t test, Mann–Whitney U test, chi-square test
  3. NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, BMI body mass index, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HOMA-IR homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, UA uric acid, ALP alkaline phosphatase, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, SAM S-adenosylmethionine, SAH S-adenosylhomocysteine, Hcy homocysteine, MET metabolic equivalent of task