Effects of combined maternal administration with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on prenatal programming of skeletal properties in the offspring
© Tatara et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 21 February 2012
Accepted: 11 May 2012
Published: 11 May 2012
Nutritional manipulations during fetal growth may induce long-term metabolic effects in postnatal life. The aim of the study was to test whether combined treatment of pregnant sows with alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate induces additive long-term effects on skeletal system properties in the offspring.
The study was performed on 290 pigs obtained from 24 sows divided into 4 equal groups and subjected to experimental treatment during two weeks before delivery. The first group consisted of control sows, while the second group received alpha-ketoglutarate. The third group was treated with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and the fourth group underwent combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate. Piglets obtained from sows were reared until slaughter age to perform morphometric, densitometric and mechanical analyses of femur. Serum evaluations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were performed in newborns and 90-day old piglets; additionally, plasma amino acid concentration was measured in newborns.
Maternal treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate significantly reduced fattening time and increased birth body weight, daily body weight gain, bone weight, volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical parameters and mechanical endurance of femur. These effects were associated with increased serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Furthermore, alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate administered solely or in combination significantly increased plasma level of 19 amino acids.
Hormonal and amino acid evaluations in pigs indicate additive effects of AKG and HMB on systemic growth and development; however, determination of bone properties has not shown such phenomenon.
KeywordsAlpha-ketoglutarate β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Prenatal programming Skeletal system Somatotrophic axis
Osteoporosis is a metabolic disorder of skeletal system characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bony tissue with consequent increased risk of fracture. Bone mass of an individual in later adult life depends upon the peak attained during skeletal growth and the subsequent rate of bone loss. Higher bone mass obtained during growth leads to lowered risk of osteoporosis development in the elderly, as well as following fractures. Thus, effective osteoporosis prevention might be aimed at increasing the peak bone mass (PBM) attained at the time of skeletal maturity . Even though evidence suggesting that PBM is inherited, current genetic markers are able to explain only a small proportion of the variation in individual bone mass and fracture risk [2, 3]. Approximately 20-30 % of the variation in PBM is determined by environmental factors such as nutrition and may be modified to obtain optimal bone mineral density, and morphological and mechanical properties of skeletal system . Undernutrition and other adverse influences such as stress arising in fetal life or during neonatal life may have long-term effects on body structure, physiology, and metabolism. Its negative effects include disturbed amino acid and protein metabolism, altered gene expression, reduced cell numbers, imbalance between cell types, altered organ structure as well as changes in a pattern of hormonal release and tissue sensitivity to these hormones [4, 5]. Epidemiological data obtained in humans have shown poor intrauterine growth and development as well as low birth weight as important factors associated with incidence of osteoporosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, schizophrenia, depression, and reproductive disorders [5–11]. Contrary to these data, experimental studies in animals and humans have shown that improved nutritional supply during critical stages of intrauterine and neonatal life characterized by very high sensitivity to metabolic, hormonal and nutritional factors may induce long-term beneficial effects on growth, development and health status [12–17]. The mechanisms responsible for stimulatory or inhibitory influence on development and growth of organisms at sensitive periods of prenatal and neonatal life, both in humans and animals, have long-term consequences in structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and systems, inducing phenomenon termed “developmental programming” [18–20].
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a molecule determining overall rate of the citric acid cycle. Reductive amination of AKG in perivein hepatocytes leads to glutamate synthesis that is converted to glutamine – conditionally essential amino acid which serves as the precursor of non-essential amino acids such as proline and arginine. Glutamate and glutamine are efficient donors of amine group in amination processes [21, 22]. Both glutamine and glutamate are important sources of oxidative fuel for placenta during pregnancy, influencing fetal development . In studies on animals, AKG administration has induced positive effects on skeletal development and homeostasis maintenance [23–25]. Furthermore, administration with AKG during neonatal life in sheep and pigs has induced beneficial effects on programming of skeletal system development in relation to bone mineral density, morphological and mechanical properties [12, 14–16].
β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of an essential amino acid leucine and is produced through metabolism of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC). Approximately 5 % of leucine metabolism leads to endogenous synthesis of HMB that is converted to β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) [26, 27]. Studies with pregnant rats and their offspring exposed to experimental diet during prenatal life in utero have shown nutritional ability to program of the activity of HMG-CoA reductase – the enzyme responsible for conversion of HMG-CoA into mevalonate and following cholesterol synthesis . β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate treatment in humans subjected to exercise resulted in increased muscle mass accretion associated with inhibition of muscle proteolysis . Studies on rats and humans have shown that dietary supplementation with HMB solely or in combination with arginine and glutamine results in increased collagen deposition . Furthermore, prenatal and neonatal exposure of pigs and sheep to HMB treatment has induced long-term beneficial effects on bone mineral density, as well as morphological and mechanical properties of skeletal system investigated at slaughter age [14, 17].
The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that treatment of pregnant sows during two last weeks of gestation with combined AKG and HMB may induce additive long-term effects on development of the skeletal system of the offspring. To achieve this aim, skeletal system properties of the offspring were investigated at slaughter age by determination of the volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical and mechanical properties of femur. Serum bone formation markers, concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), as well as free amino acid concentrations in the plasma of the offspring were determined.
The experimental procedures used throughout this study were approved by The Local Ethics Committee on Animal Experimentation of University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland.
Experimental design of the study
Composition of diet administered to pigs during the study
14–27 day of life
28–42 day of life
7–12 week of life
13–19 week of life
From 20 week of life
Wheat middlings (%)
Barley middlings (%)
Soybean meal (%)
Rye middlings (%)
Sauen-profi 1 * (%)
Ferkel-profi 2 * (%)
Josamin 3 * (%)
Cytromin duo* (%)
Soybean oil (%)
Dry matter (%)
Crude protein (%)
Crude fibre (%)
Crude fat (%)
Available P (%)
Met + Cys (%)
Vitamin A (IE)
Vitamin D3 (IE)
Vitamin E (mg)
Vitamin C (mg)
Vitamin K (mg)
Vitamin B1 (mg)
Vitamin B2 (mg)
Vitamin B6 (mg)
Vitamin B12 (μg)
Blood collection and biochemical analyses in piglets
Blood samples were collected from unsuckled and 90-days old piglets for serum and plasma evaluations. The analyzed samples were collected from one male and one female form each litter, with the closest body weight values to mean body weight of the whole litter. The obtained samples were stored at –25°C until biochemical analyses. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity in serum of newborn piglets was performed with the use of an enzyme immunoassay (METRA BAP EIA kit, Quidel Corp., San Diego, CA, USA). The measurement of BAP concentration in serum was performed in 90-day old pigs using OCTEIA Ostase® BAP immunoenzymometric assay (Immunodiagnostic Systems Ltd., Boldon, Tyne and Wear, UK). Quantitative determination of osteocalcin in serum was performed by ELISA method (Human Osteocalcin ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc., Webster, TX, USA). Growth hormone (GH) concentration in serum of piglets was assessed with the use of Porcine Growth Hormone Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay – ELISA (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc., Webster, TX, USA). Serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was determined using the commercial immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) for the quantitative determination of IGF-1 in serum or plasma (OCTEIA IGF-1, Immunodiagnostic Systems Ltd., Boldon, Tyne and Wear, UK). The results of biochemical bone metabolism markers and hormonal analyses were obtained with the use of Benchmark Plus microplate spectrophotometer supplied with Microplate Manager Software Version 5.2.1 (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Hercules, CA, USA).
Determination of free amino acid concentration in plasma of newborn piglets was performed with the use of ion-exchange chromatography (INGOS AAA-400 apparatus for automatic analysis of amino acids, Ingos Corp., Prague, Czech Republic). Amino acids were separated using analytic column OSTION LG FA 3 mm x 200 mm. For amino acid separation five lithium cytrate buffers (pH 2.9, 3.1, 3.35, 4.05 and 4.9, respectively) were used. The amino acids were derivatized with ninhydrin and their identification was performed on the basis of retention time in comparison to the standards, using photocell combined with a computer. The software MIKRO version 1.8.0 was used for amino acids evaluation (Ingos Corp., Prague, Czech Republic).
Left femur was isolated 24 hours after slaughter from males (N = 133) and females (N = 126) and cleaned from remaining soft tissues. Bone length and bone weight were measured and bone samples were kept at –25°C until further analyses. The volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) was measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) technique in SOMATOM EMOTION SIEMENS apparatus (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with Somaris/5 VB10B software. The volumetric BMD was determined for both the trabecular and cortical bone on 2-mm thick, cross-sectional, metaphyseal and diaphyseal QCT scans, respectively. The trabecular bone mineral density (Td) was assessed on measuring scan placed at 18.5 % of total femur length, proximal to the distal growth plate. The cortical bone mineral density (Cd) was determined from the scan of diaphysis at 52 % of femur length, measuring from the distal bone extremity.
Mechanical properties of the femur were determined after 4 hour thawing at room temperature using three-point bending test in INSTRON 4302 apparatus (Instron, Canton, MA, USA) linked with a computer, registering relationship between forces perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bone and the resulting displacement. The values of maximum elastic strength (Wy) and ultimate strength (Wf) of the femur were determined. The distance between bone supports was set at 40 % of total femur length. The measuring head loaded bone samples with a constant speed of 20 mm/min.
Geometrical properties of the femur were determined on the basis of measurements of horizontal and vertical diameters of the mid-diaphyseal cross-section of this bone. The values of the cross-sectional area (A), the second moment of inertia (Ix), the mean relative wall thickness (MRWT) and the cortical index (CI) were calculated [31–33].
Lean meat content determination
The evaluation of lean meat content of carcass was performed accordingly with the SEUROP grading method  with the use of Capteur Gras/Maigre – Sydel (CGM) apparatus (Sydel, Lorient, France). The lean meat content of carcass was calculated automatically by the CGM apparatus using the following formula:
Y = 50.11930 – 0.62421X1 + 0.26979X2 where:
Y – the estimated percentage of lean meat in the carcass,
X1 – the thickness of the fat (including rind), between the third and fourth last ribs (11th or 12th intercostal space) at 6 cm of the dorsal midline, at a trajectory perpendicular to the rind (in mm),
X2 – the thickness of the Longisimus dorsi muscle (in mm), measured at the X1 position.
All data are presented as means ± SEM. The data were found to be normally distributed in accordance with Kolomogorov-Smirnov test. The obtained results of the investigated parameters of serum, plasma and femur in females and males were compared with the use of non-paired Student’s t test and did not revealed sex-related differences. Thus, the differences between the groups were tested for statistical significance with the use of one-way ANOVA. Post hoc comparisons of the differences were performed using Duncan’s test. Differences showing P-value ≤ 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.
Body weights and growth rate of pigs
Body weight, fattening time, daily body weight gain and lean meat content in piglets from the Control group and the groups being under prenatal influence of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG Group), β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (HMB Group) or alpha-ketoglutarate and β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (AH Group)
(n = 65)
(n = 63)
(n = 65)
(n = 66)
Birth weight (g)
Final body weight (kg)
Fattening time (days)
Daily body weight gain (g)
Lean meat content (%)
Free amino acid concentrations in plasma of newborn piglets
Free amino acids concentrations (nmol/mL) in plasma of newborn piglets from the Control group and the groups being under prenatal influence of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG Group), β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (HMB Group) or alpha-ketoglutarate and β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (AH Group)
(n = 12)
(n = 12)
(n = 12)
(n = 12)
11 ± 0.3
14 ± 1
13 ± 1
12 ± 1
207 ± 11
195 ± 17
174 ± 18
202 ± 26
23 ± 1 a
34 ± 3 b
28 ± 2 ab
34 ± 2 b
213 ± 23 a
159 ± 15 a
158 ± 10 a
322 ± 26 b
210 ± 4 a
312 ± 23 b
236 ± 16 a
426 ± 20 c
126 ± 14
136 ± 20
99 ± 12
141 ± 15
217 ± 11 a
307 ± 20 b
286 ± 33 b
479 ± 21 c
198 ± 25 a
416 ± 35 b
169 ± 18 a
1045 ± 72 c
870 ± 37 a
1420 ± 101 b
1127 ± 74 c
1474 ± 84 b
1098 ± 62 a
1816 ± 153 b
1138 ± 55 a
1371 ± 82 a
68 ± 3 a
76 ± 5 a
83 ± 6 a
148 ± 9 b
266 ± 11 a
341 ± 23 b
328 ± 19 b
518 ± 24 c
47 ± 3 a
58 ± 5 ab
27 ± 3 c
65 ± 4 b
15 ± 2 a
26 ± 2 a
19 ± 3 a
85 ± 10 b
27 ± 4 a
33 ± 4 a
19 ± 2 a
110 ± 8 b
83 ± 10 a
96 ± 8 a
95 ± 6 a
340 ± 17 b
71 ± 6 a
67 ± 5 a
108 ± 7 b
236 ± 19 c
44 ± 5 a
58 ± 4 a
48 ± 4 a
157 ± 11 b
37 ± 12
17 ± 5
17 ± 8
21 ± 2
71 ± 4 a
104 ± 8 b
83 ± 11 ab
153 ± 14 c
268 ± 12 a
394 ± 25 b
280 ± 24 a
655 ± 30 c
24 ± 5 a
31 ± 3 a
42 ± 3 a
142 ± 11 b
81 ± 5 a
121 ± 12 b
105 ± 7 ab
235 ± 21 c
Concentrations of bone metabolism markers and hormones in serum of newborn and 90-day old piglets
Serum concentration of biochemical markers of bone metabolism and hormones in newborn piglets from the Control group and the groups being under prenatal influence of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG Group), β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (HMB Group) or alpha-ketoglutarate and β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (AH Group)
(n = 12)
(n = 12)
(n = 12)
(n = 12)
Bone alkaline phosphatase activity (U/L)
Growth hormone (ng/mL)
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (μg/L)
Serum concentration of biochemical markers of bone metabolism and hormones in 90-day old pigs from the Control group and the groups being under prenatal influence of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG Group), β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (HMB Group) or alpha-ketoglutarate and β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (AH Group)
(n = 12)
(n = 12)
(n = 12)
(n = 12)
Bone alkaline phosphatase concentration (μg/L)
Growth hormone (ng/mL)
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (μg/L)
Volumetric bone mineral density, mechanical and morphometric properties of femur in pigs at slaughter age
Volumetric bone mineral density, morphometric and mechanical parameters of femur in pigs at slaughter age from the Control group and the groups being under prenatal influence of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG Group), β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (HMB Group) or alpha-ketoglutarate and β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (AH Group)
(n = 65)
(n = 63)
(n = 65)
(n = 66)
Bone weight (g)
Bone length (mm)
Trabecular bone mineral density (g/cm3)
Cortical bone mineral density (g/cm3)
Cross-sectional area (mm2)
Second moment of inertia (mm4)
17 536 a
19 065 ab
19 851 bc
21 396 c
Mean relative wall thickness
Maximum elastic strength (N)
Ultimate strength (N)
This study has shown that prenatal administration with AKG and HMB, individual or in combination, increases body weight of newborn piglets. The most notable increases of body weight at birth were seen in piglets born by sows with combined treatment of AKG and HMB than in HMB only group and reached 27 % and 23 %, respectively, while this parameter was improved by only 16 % in the AKG group. Similar effects were obtained for fattening time and daily body weight gain. The most advantageous effects were stated in the AKG and AH groups where fattening time was reduced by 25 and 27 days, and the final body weight in these groups was increased by 4.3 % and 5.8 %, respectively. Even though final body weight in pigs was not influenced by prenatal administration with HMB, beneficial effects in this group was expressed as accelerated postnatal growth rate and improved the daily body weight gain. These results are in accordance with previous investigations on pig model where administration of AKG during last 24 days of pregnancy increased body weight of newborns by 29 % . The 13 % difference between the scales of improved body weight of newborns in both these investigations may results form 10 day longer administration of AKG in previous studies, since the same daily dosage and form of AKG was used. In the other report on prenatal influence of AKG during the last 24 days of pregnancy, body weight in newborn and 14 day old piglets was improved by 29 % and 6 %, respectively. Unfortunately in that study, the offspring from sows receiving AKG were sacrificed at 2 weeks of life and constituted a short-term effect study, and so it was not possible to compare the results achieved there to our long-term effect results . Twenty-one and 24-day long neonatal treatment of piglets with AKG at the daily dosages of 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg of body weight increased growth rate in 10- and 21-day old females, whilst in males opposite effects were obtained and lighter body weights were recorded at these developmental stages. However, administration with AKG has not induced long-term effects on final body weights of the animals slaughtered at the age of 169 days of life, indicating positive effects lasting only as long as it is being administered . Investigations on HMB administration to sows during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy have showed birth body weight of male and female piglets increased by 21 % and 26 % when compared to the controls. Furthermore, as the consequence of prenatal influences of HMB, the fattening time to final body weight of the pigs was reduced by 11 days, and the body weights at slaughter in these pigs were not different from controls in both males and females . In other studies on chicken embryos model, in ovo administration of HMB increased body weight of hatched and 10-day chicks by 3.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively . Experiments performed on turkey embryos have also shown positive effects of in ovo feeding with HMB on body weight from hatch to 14 days of age when the study was finished . Similarly to the outcome in our study, the only one available report on combined treatment with AKG and HMB in growing fundectomized pigs has not revealed additive effects of these metabolites on final body weight that reached comparable values in 8-month old animals receiving AKG or HMB only. However, the final body weights of pigs growing over 6 months without the fundic part of the stomach and fed AKG, HMB or AKG and HMB per os were increased double when compared to the fundectomized group receiving placebo .
Effects of prenatal administration with AKG and HMB on systemic growth and development of piglets in postnatal life observed in our study were associated with increased plasma concentration of free amino acids. The most prominent effects of prenatal dietary manipulations on amino acid metabolism were observed in the group being under combined influence of AKG and HMB. In this group, 18 amino acids such as aspartate, threonine, serine, glutamine, proline, glycine, citrulline, valine, cystine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, ornithine, lysine, histidine and arginine were found to be increased in plasma of newborns in comparison to the control group. In case of threonine, serine, glutamine, proline, citrulline, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, ornithine, lysine, histidine and arginine, the obtained results indicate an additive anabolic effects of AKG and HMB on amino acid metabolism, since the amino acid plasma concentrations were significantly higher than in the groups receiving solely AKG or HMB. In the AKG group, concentrations of 10 amino acids such as aspartate, serine, glutamine, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, ornithine, lysine and arginine were elevated above the control values. Noteworthy is the fact that in the AH and AKG groups, the final body weights as well as daily body weight gain and fattening time reached the most desirable characteristics. In the HMB group, relatively moderate effects of the dietary manipulation on plasma amino acid concentration were observed and the level of glutamine, glycine, valine and tyrosine was increased in comparison to the control group. Results obtained in our study are in accordance with the previous investigations on weaned pigs where an enteral 6-hour continuous infusion of 930 μmol/kg/h of AKG improved net portal absorption rate of proline, leucine and lysine by 64 %, 49 % and 36 %, respectively. The concentrations of all these amino acids were increased in our study in newborn piglets being under individual or combined prenatal influence of AKG . Moreover, in 17-week old turkeys, plasma concentrations of proline and leucine were elevated by 53 % and 25 % after 14-week long oral administration with AKG at the same dosage as in the current study . Available data from studies on growing turkeys have shown that 15-week administration with HMB increased concentration of cysteic acid, glutamine, valine, aspartate, glutamate, proline, alanine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine, whilst body weights were not different in comparison to control birds . In studies on fundectomized pigs, HMB improved plasma concentration of methioine, threonine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, tryptophan and arginine, depending on blood sampling time since last oral dosage of HMB . However, simultaneous administration with AKG and HMB improved concentration of histidine, methionine and threonine when evaluated in plasma of fundectomized 8-month old pigs subjected to 24-hour fasting .
The current study also indicates that positive effects of prenatal administration with AKG and HMB were associated with improved somatotrophic axis function due to increased serum levels of GH and IGF-1. In the newborns, GH level was increased in animals being under influence of HMB only or HMB introduced simultaneously with AKG, while IGF-1 reached higher values in all the investigated groups. In 90-day old piglets, GH was found to be increased only in the group born by the sows receiving combined treatment of AKG and HMB but IGF-1 concentration was found to be significantly elevated in all the experimental groups. These data suggest that higher serum concentration of IGF-1 in all the groups receiving experimental treatments may results from enhanced somatotrophic axis function and liver production of IGF-1 as well as locally produced IGF-1 and its autocrine or paracrine actions . Recent experiments on rats performed by Gerlinger-Romero and colleagues (2011) have shown that chronic supplementation of HMB increases the activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induces increased content of IGF-1 mRNA in the liver . It was shown in previous studies on humans that AKG administered as ornithine salt (OKG) in multiple trauma adult patients, who were highly catabolic and hypermetabolic, increases plasma levels of IGF-1 and GH by 41 % and 82 %. Similarly to the results in this study, OKG administration in those patients enhanced glutamine, proline and ornithine levels by 25 %, 39 % and 234 %, respectively . In children suffering from growth retardation, 5-month long OKG administration (15 g/day) induced growth acceleration in association with increased plasma IGF-1 level. Moreover, these effects were related to significantly higher plasma glutamine concentration in children receiving AKG . Similarly to studies on humans, elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 in newborn piglets from AKG-treated sows during the last 24 days of pregnancy were stated . As opposite to studies on pigs, 14-day neonatal treatment with AKG in lambs has not induced effects on circulating IGF-1 level. However, 4 times lower dosage of AKG was administered to sheep than in the current study . Investigations on animals with maternal and neonatal administration of HMB have also shown improved somatotrophic axis function. HMB treatment in pregnant sows for 2 weeks before the partum increased serum GH and IGF-1 levels by 38 % and 20 % in the offspring . In lambs, oral administration with HMB during the first 21 days of life also increased GH and IGF-1 concentration by 70 % as determined at 3 weeks of life, while at the age of 130 days of life both these hormones reached similar values to those in controls . Thus, it may be postulated that prenatal treatment with HMB may induce long-term effects on secretive function of the somatotrophic axis, while neonatal or postnatal administration improves temporary its function and brings short-term effects.
Next to the observed beneficial effects of prenatal influences of AKG and HMB on increased growth rate of pigs and hormonal and amino acid status, this study demonstrated improved morphometric, densitometric and mechanical properties of bones after the experimental treatments. Both these metabolites induced individually or in combination long-term anabolic effects on bone tissue metabolism which were expressed as increased values of bone formation marker – BAP in newborn and 90-day old piglets. Increased serum concentration of OC in 90-day old pigs in the AH group also confirmed continuous acceleration of bone formation processes resulting from the performed dietary manipulation in pregnant sows. However, the observed in this study difference of serum OC concentration between AKG and AH groups of newborns need further investigation to be explained. Among morphological traits, weight of femur was improved in all the experimental groups and the most readable effects were induced after exclusive or combined administration with HMB, while bone length was improved by nearly 2 % in case of the combined treatment. Improved weight of femur may results from both the observed increased vBMD and bone geometry. It is noteworthy that cross-sectional area was enhanced in all the experimental groups, while second moment of inertia reached higher values in the HMB and AH groups. As the result of improved periosteal and endoosteal bone deposition, MRWT and CI of femur were higher after exclusive treatment with AKG or HMB. Prenatal treatment with AKG and HMB increased also vBMD within both cancellous and compact compartments in all the experimental groups. It is surprising that the highest values of Td and Cd were stated in animals receiving HMB only, and the additive effect of AKG and HMB on bone mineralization was not induced. Evaluation of mechanical endurance of femur has not revealed additive effects of AKG and HMB; however, improved maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength were observed in all the experimental groups. The improved mechanical characteristic of femur observed in all the experimental groups seems to be result of improved bone geometry and vBMD since both these factors determine bone rigidity and mechanical endurance to acting forces [46–48]. The observed anabolic effects of AKG and HMB on skeleton in the current study are in accordance to the results obtained on the fundectomized pig model, where severe osteopenia development of femur and tibia was inhibited by a 6-month administration with these metabolites. In AKG-treated animals, significant increase of weight, length, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), cross-sectional area, second moment of inertia, mean relative wall thickness, cortical index, maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength of the bones was associated with improved serum concentration of IGF-1 and serum BAP activity when compared to the fundectomized group . Results of long bone analysis in slaughter pigs treated during 21 and 24 days of neonatal life with AKG revealed its positive effects on length, Cd, Wy, Wf and Young’s modulus that was connected with elevated plasma estrogens level . In studies on growing turkeys, 14-week long administration with AKG eliminated neurectomy-induced osteopenia of radius increasing its weight, vBMD, A, Ix, MRWT, Wy and Wf. These advantageous effects were combined with higher serum concentration of proline and leucine in comparison to placebo-treated birds . In other studies on sheep, two week long neonatal treatment with AKG improved Td, Cd and Wf of femur as well as increasing weight, length, Cd, Wy and the moments of maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength [12, 15]. Furthermore, it was shown that 7-week administration with OKG in growing female turkeys induces higher Td, Cd, Wy and Wf of tibia without any changes of bone geometry. However, increased synthesis of aspartate, proline, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine and ornithine was postulated to be responsible for enhanced skeletal properties . Using fendectomized pig model, it was revealed that HMB inhibits fundectomy-induced osteopenia in axial skeleton (lumbar vertebrae) improving weight, total volume, mean vBMD, Td, calcium hydroxyapatite density of trabecular and cortical bone, BMD, BMC, ultimate force, ultimate stress, Young’s modulus, stiffness and work to the ultimate force point. Together with the beneficial influence of HMB on bone tissue and skeletal characteristic, the improved synthesis of threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, tryptophan and arginine was observed, confirming importance of amino acid metabolism for bone formation and skeletal homeostasis maintenance . In studies on growing meat-type male turkeys, HMB administration from 6 to 20 week of life positively influenced geometry, vBMD and mechanical endurance of tibia. It was shown that improved Td, Cd, A, Ix, Wy and Wf of tibia was related to higher plasma concentration of cysteic acid, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine . Unfortunately, the comparison of the bone properties determined in this study on pigs from the AH group is not possible with other experimental data, since effects of combined treatment with AKG and HMB on bone tissue metabolism and skeletal system were not previously studied, either in animals or in humans.
Considering the results obtained in the current study, it should be emphasized that prenatal dietary manipulation with AKG and HMB influenced systemic development of pigs stimulating different physiological mechanism. It may be postulated that increased birth and final body weight, as well as accelerated systemic growth and development of pigs were induced via stimulated secretory function of the somatotrophic axis by AKG and HMB. This hypothesis is supported by the data showing that endocrine gland function can be programmed in utero at critical periods of prenatal development with metabolic pre-partum and post-partum consequences on the cellular, tissue and system levels . It may be proposed that the improved skeletal properties in AKG and/or HMB treated animals result from positive prenatal programming of the somatotrophic axis, especially when one considers decisive role of GH and IGF-1 for skeletal growth, osteoblasts function, bone mineralization and calcium-phosphate homeostasis maintenance . The other mechanism positively influencing prenatal development of piglets, their birth and final body weight, as well as daily body weight gain and bone tissue properties may result from improved amino acid metabolism. It must be underlined that plasma glutamine concentration was increased in newborns from all the experimental groups. Besides its building function in protein and polypeptides structures, glutamine - being a functional amino acid - determines key metabolic pathways necessary to provide optimal growth rate and immunity. It maximizes efficiency of feed utilization, enhances protein accretion and improves health status influencing effectives in animal production. Furthermore, glutamine, as the most abundant alpha-amino acid in skeletal muscles, regulates nutrient metabolism, gene expression and protein synthesis – the main factors influencing muscle mass and body weight . Improved metabolism of glutamine would also provide benefit for skeletal formation, especially when one considers its role as the main substrate for synthesis of proline – the amino acid undergoing hydroxylation process to form hydroxyproline. Both proline and hydroxyproline are considered as integral constituents of collagen helix and its protectors against proteases. While proline and hydroxyproline contribute to two-thirds of the collagen structure, one-third is ascribed to glycine . Except for proline concentration in the HMB group of newborns, both proline and glycine were increased in all the experimental groups. Thus, AKG- and HMB induced increase of the amount of collagen in bones of the newborns from experimental groups would provide steady advantage in bone mass of the skeleton maintained or increased during postnatal growth and development in relation to control animals. It can not be excluded that higher muscle mass since birth of piglets has also induced positive effects on skeleton through higher life-long tension and biomechanical stimulation of bones and their positive response in terms of enhanced mineralization, morphological traits and mechanical endurance. Better muscle function resulting from direct and indirect influences of the other amino acids (mostly leucine, isoleucine, valine, arginine and methionine) increased in AKG- and HMB-treated piglets would also be effective in relation to improved muscle-bone interactions . Due to observed higher body weights since birth in all the experimental groups of pigs than in the control animals, positive effects in bones may results partially from heavier skeletal loading, since adaptive response of bone tissue to loading increases bone mass, size and mineral density [55, 56].
In response to the question whether additive effects of maternal treatment with AKG and HMB on prenatal programming of growth, development and bone tissue metabolism exist, which arises from the current study, the complete explanation of this issue seems to be difficult. It must be underlined that in the AH group, the highest plasma concentration of 16 amino acids such as threonine, serine, glutamine, proline, citruline, valine, cysteine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, ornithine, lysine, histidine and arginine in comparison to all other groups indicates on additive effects of these metabolites in relation to prenatal programming of growth, development and bone tissue metabolism. The observed secretive response of the somatotrophic axis to combined maternal treatment with AKG and HMB and the highest concentration of GH and IGF-1 in the AH group confirm additive effects of these metabolites in relation to systemic growth and development. However, except for bone length, the evaluation of systemic growth parameters and bone properties in pigs at slaughter age has not shown additive effects of prenatal AKG and HMB application.
Peak bone mass
β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A
Insulin-like growth factor-1
Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase
Volumetric bone mineral density
Quantitative computed tomography
Trabecular bone mineral density
Cortical bone mineral density
Maximum elastic strength
Second moment of inertia
Mean relative wall thickness
Bone mineral density
Bone mineral content.
This study was supported by Grant No 2 P06Z 012 29 from The Polish Ministry of Education and Science.
- Eastell R, Lambert H: Diet and healthy bones. Calcif Tissue Int. 2002, 70: 400-404. 10.1007/s00223-001-0047-9.View Article
- Cooper C, Walker-Bone K, Arden N, Dennison E: Novel insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis: the role of intrauterine programming. Rheumatology. 2000, 39: 1312-1315. 10.1093/rheumatology/39.12.1312.View Article
- Ralston S: Do genetic markers aid in risk assessment?. Osteoporosis Int. 1998, 8 (Suppl. 1): S37-S42.
- Battaglia FC, Regnault TRH: Placental transport and metabolism of amino acids. Placenta. 2001, 22: 145-161. 10.1053/plac.2000.0612.View Article
- Cooper C, Javaid MK, Taylor P, Walker-Bone K, Dennison E, Arden N: The fetal origin of osteoporotic fracture. Calcif Tissue Int. 2002, 70: 391-394. 10.1007/s00223-001-0044-z.View Article
- Cooper C, Fall C, Egger P, Hobbs R, Eastell R, Barker D: Growth in infancy and bone mass in later life. Ann Rheum Dis. 1997, 56: 17-21. 10.1136/ard.56.1.17.View Article
- Fall C, Hindmarsh P, Dennison E, Kellingray S, Barker D, Cooper C: Programming of growth hormone secretion and bone mineral density in elderly men: a hypothesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998, 83: 135-139. 10.1210/jc.83.1.135.
- Cooper C, Javaid K, Westlake S, Harvey N, Dennison E: Developmental origins of osteoporotic fracture: The role of maternal vitamin D insufficiency. J Nutr. 2005, 135: 2728S-2734S.
- Fowden AL, Giussani DA, Forhead AJ: Endocrine and metabolic programming during intrauterine development. Early Hum Dev. 2005, 81: 723-734. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2005.06.007.View Article
- Ozanne SE, Fernandez-Twinn D, Hales CN: Fetal growth and adult diseases. Semin Perinatol. 2004, 28: 81-87. 10.1053/j.semperi.2003.10.015.View Article
- Specker B: Nutrition influences bone development from infancy through toddler years. J Nutr. 2004, 134: 6910S-6915S.
- Harrison AP, Tygesen MP, Sawa-Wojtanowicz B, Husted S, Tatara MR: α-Ketoglutarate treatment early in postnatal life improves bone density in lambs at slaughter. Bone. 2004, 35: 204-209. 10.1016/j.bone.2004.03.016.View Article
- Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Gale CR, Dennison EM, Boucher BJ, Arden NK, Godfrey KM, Cooper C: Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: A longitudinal study. Lancet. 2006, 367: 36-43. 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)67922-1.View Article
- Tatara MR, Śliwa E, Krupski W: Prenatal programming of skeletal development in the offspring: effects of maternal treatment with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on femur properties in pigs at slaughter age. Bone. 2007, 40: 1615-1622. 10.1016/j.bone.2007.02.018.View Article
- Tatara MR, Tygesen MP, Sawa-Wojtanowicz B, Krupski W, Majcher P, Harrison AP: Bone development: the effect of short term alpha-ketoglutarate administration on long term mechanical properties of ribs in ram lambs. Small Rum Res. 2007, 67: 179-183. 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.09.031.View Article
- Andersen NK, Tatara MR, Krupski W, Majcher P, Harrison AP: The long-term effect of α-ketoglutarate, given early in postnatal life, on both growth and various bone parameters in pigs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 2008, 92: 519-528. 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2007.00742.x.View Article
- Tatara MR: Neonatal programming of skeletal development in sheep is mediated by somatotrophic axis function. Exp Physiol. 2008, 93: 763-772. 10.1113/expphysiol.2007.041145.View Article
- Fowden AL, Forhead AJ: Endocrine mechanisms of intrauterine programming. Reproduction. 2004, 127: 515-526. 10.1530/rep.1.00033.View Article
- Ross MG, Desai M: Gestational programming: Population survival effects of drought and famine during pregnancy. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005, 288: R25-R33.View Article
- Demmelmair H, von Rosen H, Koletzko B: Long-term consequences of early nutrition. Early Hum Dev. 2006, 82: 567-574. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.07.004.View Article
- Stoll B, McNelly S, Buscher H-P, Haussinger D: Functional hepatocyte heterogeneity in glutamate, aspartate and α-ketoglutarate uptake: A histoautoradiographical study. Hepatology. 1991, 13: 247-253. 10.1002/hep.1840130208.View Article
- Fläring UB, Rooyackers OE, Wernerman J, Hammarqvist F: Glutamine attenuates post-traumatic glutathione depletion in human muscle. Clin Sci. 2003, 104: 275-282. 10.1042/CS20020198.View Article
- Kowalik S, Śliwa E, Tatara MR, Krupski W, Majcher P, Studziński T: Influence of alpha-ketoglutarate on mineral density and geometrical and mechanical parameters of femora during postnatal life in piglets. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2005, 49: 107-111.
- Tatara MR, Brodzki A, Krupski W, Śliwa E, Silmanowicz P, Majcher P, Pierzynowski SG, Studziński T: Effects of α-ketoglutarate on bone homeostasis and plasma amino acids in turkeys. Poult Sci. 2005, 84: 1604-1609.View Article
- Tatara MR, Silmanowicz P, Majcher P, Krupski W, Studziński T: Influence of alpha-ketoglutarate on cortical bone atrophy after denervation of the humerus in turkey. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2005, 49: 113-116.
- Nissen S, Abumrad NN: Nutritional role of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB). J Nutr Biochem. 1997, 8: 300-311. 10.1016/S0955-2863(97)00048-X.View Article
- Tako E, Ferket PR, Uni Z: Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on the development of chicken intestine. Poult Sci. 2004, 83: 2023-2028.View Article
- Brown SA, Rogers LK, Dunn JK, Gotto AM, Patsch W: Development of cholesterol hemostatic memory in the rats is influenced by maternal diets. Metabolism. 1990, 39: 468-473. 10.1016/0026-0495(90)90004-V.View Article
- Nissen S, Sharp R, Ray M, Rathmacher JA, Rice D, Fuller JC, Connelly AS, Abumrad N: Effect of leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. J Appl Physiol. 1996, 81: 2095-2104.
- Williams J, Abumrad N, Barbul A: Effect of a specialized amino acid mixture on human collagen deposition. Ann Surg. 2002, 236: 369-375. 10.1097/00000658-200209000-00013.View Article
- Ferretti JL, Capozza RF, Mondelo N, Montuori E, Zanchetta JR: Determination of femur structural properties by geometric and material variables as a function of body weight in rats. Evidence of sexual dimorphism. Bone. 1993, 14: 265-270. 10.1016/8756-3282(93)90150-9.View Article
- Ferretti JL, Capozza RF, Mondelo N, Zanchetta JR: Interrelationships between densitometric, geometric and mechanical properties of rat femora: inferences concerning mechanical regulation of bone modelling. J Bone Miner Res. 1993, 8: 1389-1395.View Article
- Tatara MR, Krupski W, Majcher P, Studziński T: Long-term denervation of the humerus in turkeys as an experimental model for osteopenia. Poult Sci. 2005, 84: 718-722.View Article
- The Commission of the European Communities: Commission decision of 11 March 2005 authorizing methods for grading pigs` carcasses in Poland. Off J Europ Union Pl. 2005, L74: 62-65.
- Śliwa E, Kowalik S, Tatara MR, Krupski W, Majcher P, Łuszczewska-Sierakowska I, Pierzynowski SG, Studziński T: Effect of alpha-ketoglutarate given to pregnant sows on the development of the humerus and femur in newborns. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2005, 49: 117-120.
- Śliwa E, Wawrzyniak-Gacek A, Tatara MR, Kowalik S, Łuszczewska-Sierakowska I, Krupski W, Majcher P, Pierzynowski SG, Studziński T: Influence of dexamethasone and alpha-ketoglutarate on growth and development of the skeletal system of pigs. Medycyna Wet. 2005, 61: 526-531.
- Foye OT, Ferket PR, Uni Z: The effects of in ovo feeding arginine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate, and protein on jejunal digestive and absorptive activity in embryonic and neonatal turkey poults. Poult Sci. 2007, 86: 2343-2349. 10.3382/ps.2007-00110.View Article
- Sliwa E, Adaszek L, Tatara M, Dobrowolski P: Short- and long-term consequences on biochemical markers after fundectomy in pigs supplemented with 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2010, 123: 397-405.
- Lambert BD, Filip R, Stoll B, Junghans P, Derno M, Hennig U, Souffrant WB, Pierzynowski S, Burrin DG: First-pass metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of enteral alpha-ketoglutarate in young pigs. J Nutr. 2006, 136: 2779-2784.
- Tatara MR: Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) administration on volumetric bone mineral density, and morphometric and mechanical properties of tibia in male turkeys. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 2009, 93: 669-677. 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2008.00854.x.View Article
- Tatara MR, Sliwa E, Krupski W, Worzakowska M: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate administration diminishes fundectomy-induced osteopenia of the lumbar spine in pigs. Nutrition. 2008, 7–8: 753-760.View Article
- Sjogren K, Liu JL, Blad K, Skrtic S, Vidal O, Wallenius V, LeRoith D, Tornell J, Isaksson OGP, Jansson JO, Ohlsson C: Liver-derived insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is the principal source of IGF-I in blood but is not required for postnatal body growth in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1999, 96: 7088-7092. 10.1073/pnas.96.12.7088.View Article
- Gerlinger-Romero F, Guimarães-Ferreira L, Giannocco G, Nunes MT: Chronic supplementation of beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate (HMB) increases the activity of the GH/IGF-I axis and induces hyperinsulinemia in rats. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2011, 21: 57-62. 10.1016/j.ghir.2010.12.006.View Article
- Jeevanandam M, Petersen SR: Substrate fuel kinetics in enterally fed traumapatients supplemented with ornithine alpha ketoglutarate. Clin Nutr. 1999, 18: 209-217. 10.1016/S0261-5614(99)80072-7.View Article
- Moukarzel AA, Goulet O, Salas JS, Marti-Henneberg C, Buchman AL, Cynober L, Rappaport R, Ricour C: Growth retardation in children receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition: effects of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994, 60: 408-413.
- Krupski W, Tatara MR: Interrelationships between densitometric, morphometric, and mechanical properties of the tibia in turkeys. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2007, 51: 621-626.
- Tatara MR, Śliwa E, Krupski W, Worzakowska M, Studziński T: Interrelationships between morphometric, densitometric and mechanical properties of lumbar vertebrae in pig. JPCCR. 2007, 2: 165-170.
- Tatara MR, Krupski W, Tymczyna B, Majcher P, Rosenbeiger P, Niedziela D: Interrelationships between densitometric, morphometric, and mechanical properties of the femur in male polish merino sheep. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2011, 55: 795-799.
- Śliwa E: 2-Oxoglutaric acid administration diminishes fundectomy-induced osteopenia in pigs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 2010, 94: e86-e95. 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2009.00985.x.View Article
- Tatara MR, Śliwa E, Krupski W, Brodzki A, Pasternak K: Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate increases mineralization and mechanical properties of tibia in turkeys. Bone. 2006, 39: 100-105. 10.1016/j.bone.2005.12.016.View Article
- Rizzoli R, Bonjour J-P, Ferrari SL: Osteoporosis, genetics and hormones. J Mol Endocrinol. 2001, 26: 79-94. 10.1677/jme.0.0260079.View Article
- Wu G: Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition. Amino Acids. 2009, 37: 1-17.View Article
- Rodwell VW: Metabolism of proteins and amino acids. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. Edited by: Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW. 2003, Stamford, Lange, 237-285.
- Ferretti JL, Cointry GR, Capozza RF, Frost HM: Bone mass, bone strength, muscle-bone interactions, osteopenias and osteoporoses. Mech Ageing Dev. 2003, 124: 269-279. 10.1016/S0047-6374(02)00194-X.View Article
- Warden SJ: Breaking the rules for bone adaptation to mechanical loading. J Appl Physiol. 2006, 100: 1441-1442. 10.1152/japplphysiol.00038.2006.View Article
- Kuruvilla SJ, Fox SD, Cullen DM, Akhter MP: Site specific bone adaptation response to mechanical loading. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2008, 8: 71-78.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.