Effect of CR and spice compounds on CD4+T cell subpopulations. Splenocytes were stimulated with 50 ng/ml PMA and 500 ng/ml ionomycin in the presence of Golgi Stop for 4 h. After that, appropriate surface and intracellular stainings were performed to identify CD4+ T cell subpopulations as defined by their cytokine production pattern: Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) (A), Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) (B), Th17 (IL-17) (C), and Treg (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) (D) using flow cytometry. All analyses were performed within the gated CD4+ T cells. Values are means ± SEM (n = 9 mice/group). Means without a common letter differ at P < 0.05. HFD: high fat diet, CR: caloric restriction, C: curcumin, P: piperine.