Role of ceramide and oxidative stress in fructose-mediated stress signaling. Ceramide (left) or DCF fluorescence (right) (A), phosphorylation of MKK7 (B), and phosphorylation JNK (C) in primary hepatocytes in response to glucose (G) or glucose and fructose (GF) in the absence (- insulin) or presence (+ insulin) of insulin. When present fumonisin B1 was at 50 uM and taurine at 1% w/v. Data in graphs are the mean ± SDEV for 6 independent experiments performed in triplicate. Experiments were 4 h in duration. * significantly different from G (p < 0.05).