Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 ameliorates insulin resistance and facilitates glucose uptake in high-fructose-diet rats. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (A), glucose metabolism index (including serum glucose, insulin, leptin, and C-peptide levels) (B), plasma incretin (active GLP-1 and total GIP) concentrations (C), and insulin sensitivity regulation as well as glucose uptake related genes expression in adipose tissue (PPARγ, GLUT1 and GLUT4) (D) in high-fructose-diet rats. The serum glucose metabolism index, plasma incretin concentrations, and relevant mRNA were measured at 14 weeks after treatment. The whole blood samples were used for determination of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at week 0, 4, 8, and 14. Values were expressed as mean ± SD (n = 6). #p < 0.05 compared with Control group; *p < 0.05 compared with HFD group.