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Table 2 Changes in blood parameters at baseline and after 12 weeks

From: Effects of low-volume walking programme and vitamin E supplementation on oxidative damage and health-related variables in healthy older adults

   Groups P- value
WG (N= 7) WSG (N= 7) SG (N= 10) CG (N= 14) (time, interaction)
Triacylglycerol (mg/dl) Baseline 100.9 ± 13.1 97.3 ± 11.6 85.0 ± 6.0 99.1 ± 15.0 0.109, 0.703
12 weeks 112.7 ± 15.8 106.0 ± 13.1 99.0 ± 13.6 99.1 ± 12.4
Δ +11.9 ± 15.9 +8.7 ± 8.9 +14.0 ± 1.0 −0.1 ± 7.4
TC (mg/dl) Baseline 199.1 ± 9.8 224.7 ± 13.6 201.7 ± 6.8 212.6 ± 5.7 0.001, 0.012
12 weeks 235.3 ± 10.7† 237.6 ± 11.4† 217.5 ± 7.3† 214.6 ± 7.1
Δ +36.1 ± 8.1‡ +12.9 ± 5.2 +15.8 ± 6.7 +2.1 ± 6.1
HDL-C (mg/dl) Baseline 61.6 ± 4.0 64.7 ± 7.6 56.3 ± 3.4 63.5 ± 5.35 0.081, 0.165
12 weeks 70.6 ± 6.6† 63.7 ± 7.0 59.1 ± 3.7 63.8 ± 4.15
Δ +9.0 ± 3.4 −1.0 ± 3.0 +2.8 ± 1.3 +0.3 ± 3.2
LDL-C (mg/dl) Baseline 115.0 ± 7.1 132.6 ± 11.2 119.4 ± 6.3 118.7 ± 5.4 0.004, 0.122
12 weeks 135.0 ± 9.1 140.3 ± 9.1 125.6 ± 7.6 119.4 ± 5.8
Δ +20.0 ± 8.4 +7.7 ± 5.5 +6.2 ± 5.5 +0.7 ± 3.8
Glucose (mg/dl) Baseline 96.9 ± 2.8 110.0 ± 8.4 91.1 ± 1.5 90.2 ± 1.2 0.992, 0.098
12 weeks 100.3 ± 2.9 106.1 ± 8.8 89.4 ± 2.2 92.8 ± 1.1†
Δ +3.4 ± 2.7 −3.9 ± 3.1 −1.7 ± 2.5 +2.6 ± 1.2
Insulin (pmol/L) Baseline 26.1 ± 5.4 22.6 ± 4.6 17.6 ± 3.2 22.4 ± 1.3 0.021, 0.374
12 weeks 26.5 ± 5.4 33.5 ± 8.4 24.7 ± 2.3 24.9 ± 2.1
Δ +0.3 ± 7.5 +10.9 ± 5.8 +7.1 ± 3.7 +2.6 ± 1.7
HbA1c (%) Baseline 5.37 ± 0.11 5.54 ± 0.27 5.10 ± 0.09 5.11 ± 0.10 0.001, 0.823
12 weeks 5.21 ± 0.08 5.34 ± 0.27† 5.00 ± 0.07† 4.97 ± 0.04
Δ −0.16 ± 0.06 −0.20 ± 0.02 −0.10 ± 0.04 −0.14 ± 0.08
C-peptide (pmol/L) Baseline 374.4 ± 50.9 366.9 ± 40.5 369.9 ± 31.5 360.8 ± 29.1 0.001, 0.578
12 weeks 470.1 ± 71.3 492.0 ± 99.2 427.6 ± 36.6 415.8 ± 31.0†
Δ +95.6 ± 66.1 +125.1 ± 67.9 +57.7 ± 30.8 +55.0 ± 13.1
sE-selectin (ng/ml) Baseline 41.6 ± 7.1 48.9 ± 8.7 41.1 ± 2.9 39.3 ± 3.5 0.001, 0.442
12 weeks 47.4 ± 7.1 51.3 ± 8.2 44.0 ± 2.9 46.2 ± 3.7†
Δ +5.8 ± 3.7 +2.4 ± 1.6 +2.9 ± 2.2 +6.9 ± 2.0
sVCAM-1 (ng/ml) Baseline 748.3 ± 56.8 689.6 ± 43.9 603.4 ± 24.2 692.5 ± 47.8 0.019, 0.060
12 weeks 771.8 ± 66.5 692.6 ± 45.8 610.8 ± 26.1 760.3 ± 59.0†
Δ +23.5 ± 19.1 +3.0 ± 27.2 +7.4 ± 16.3 +67.8 ± 17.5
  1. Values are mean ± SEM. WG, walking group; WSG, walking + supplementation group; SG, supplementation group; CG, control group; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high density lipopoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipopoprotein cholesterol; sE-selectin, soluble E-selectin; sVCAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1.
  2. † Significantly different from the baseline value in the same group (Paired t-test, P < 0.05).
  3. ‡ Significantly different from the CG (One-factor ANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment, P = 0.007).
  4. Δ, 12 weeks – baseline difference; w, walking; ws, walking + supplementation; s, supplementation; c, control.