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Table 2 Mean serum homocysteine concentrations according to tertile of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA in serum phospholipids

From: Polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum and homocysteine concentrations in Japanese men and women: a cross-sectional study

Fatty acid tertile n Model 11 Model 22
PUFA    
  <44.32% 166 10.58 (10.13, 11.05)3 10.45 (10.05, 10.88)
  44.32–46.20% 165 10.23 (9.81, 10.68) 10.16 (9.77, 10.55)
  ≥46.21% 165 9.95 (9.52, 10.39) 10.14 (9.75, 10.55)
  P-trend4   0.06 0.34
n-6 PUFA5    
  <32.44% 166 10.18 (9.72, 10.66) 10.32 (9.90, 10.77)
  32.44–35.19% 165 10.05 (9.63, 10.49) 9.98 (9.61, 10.37)
  ≥35.20% 165 10.52 (10.05, 11.02) 10.45 (10.02, 10.90)
  P-trend4   0.34 0.67
LA (18:2n-6)    
  <19.98% 166 10.32 (9.90, 10.77) 10.08 (9.64, 10.55)
  19.98–22.92% 165 9.98 (9.61, 10.37) 10.12 (9.70, 10.56)
  ≥22.93% 165 10.45 (10.02, 10.90) 10.55 (10.09, 11.04)
  P-trend4   0.67 0.14
DGLA (20:3n-6)    
  <1.96% 166 10.11 (9.68, 10.55) 10.25 (9.85, 10.66)
  1.96–2.43% 165 10.47 (10.04, 10.93) 10.39 (9.99, 10.79)
  ≥2.44% 165 10.17 (9.74, 10.62) 10.12 (9.71, 10.54)
  P-trend4   0.83 0.64
AA (20:4n-6)    
  < 9.25% 166 10.30 (9.86, 10.75) 10.29 (9.85, 10.65)
  9.25 –10.71% 165 10.27 (9.84, 10.72) 10.39 (10.00, 10.80)
  ≥ 10.72% 165 10.18 (9.75, 10.63) 10.12 (9.73, 10.52)
  P-trend4   0.73 0.64
n-3 PUFA5    
  <9.95% 166 10.75 (10.29, 11.23) 10.49 (10.07, 10.92)
  9.95–12.34% 165 10.08 (9.66, 10.52) 10.07 (9.69, 10.46)
  ≥12.35% 165 9.93 (9.50, 10.38) 10.20 (9.79, 10.62)
  P-trend4   0.02 0.36
EPA (20:5n-3)    
  <1.87% 166 10.76 (10.31, 11.24) 10.56 (10.14, 10.99)
  1.87–2.89% 165 10.10 (9.68, 10.54) 10.12 (9.74, 10.51)
  ≥2.90% 165 9.90 (9.48, 10.34) 10.08 (9.69, 10.49)
  P-trend4   0.01 0.12
DPA (22:5n-3)    
  <0.99% 166 10.61 (10.15, 11.09) 10.49 (10.08, 10.92)
  0.99–1.20% 165 10.14 (9.72, 10.58) 10.09 (9.71, 10.48)
  ≥1.21% 165 10.01 (9.57, 10.48) 10.18 (9.76, 10.60)
  P-trend4   0.08 0.30
DHA (22:6n-3)    
  <6.84% 166 10.72 (10.26, 11.19) 10.57 (10.16, 11.00)
  6.84–8.25% 165 10.33 (9.90, 10.77) 10.25 (9.87, 10.64)
  ≥8.26% 165 9.73 (9.31, 10.17) 9.94 (9.55, 10.34)
  P-trend4   0.003 0.04
  1. Abbreviations: AA Arachidonic acid, DGLA Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, DHA Docosahexaenoic acid, DPA Docosapentaenoic acid, EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid, LA Linoleic acid, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid.
  2. 1Adjusted for age (y, continuous), sex and workplace [A (surveyed in July) or B (surveyed in November)].
  3. 2Adjusted for age (y, continuous), sex, workplace [A (surveyed in July) or B (surveyed in November)], smoking status (non-smoker or smoker), BMI (kg/m2, continuous), alcohol consumption (non-drinker, <20 g/d or ≥20 g/d), occupational physical activity (sedentary work or active work), non-occupational physical activity (0, 0 < to <5 or ≥5 MET-h/wk), serum folate (ng/mL, continuous), vitamin B6 intake (mg/1000 kcal, continuous) and vitamin B12 intake (μg/1000 kcal, continuous).
  4. 3Geometric means (95% confidence interval) of serum homocysteine (nmol/mL).
  5. 4P-trend values were based on multiple regression analysis, with ordinal numbers 0–2 assigned to tertile categories of each fatty acid.
  6. 5N-6 PUFA is the sum of LA, DGLA, and AA; n-3 PUFA is the sum of EPA, DPA, and DHA; PUFA is the sum of n-6 and n-3 PUFA.