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Table 3 Mean serum homocysteine concentrations according to tertile of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA in serum CE

From: Polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum and homocysteine concentrations in Japanese men and women: a cross-sectional study

Fatty acid tertile n Model 11 Model 22
PUFA    
  <65.27% 166 10.51 (10.05, 10.99)3 10.40 (9.98, 10.83)
  65.27–68.11% 165 10.20 (9.77, 10.65) 10.11 (9.73, 10.50)
  ≥68.12% 165 10.04 (9.61, 10.49) 10.25 (9.85, 10.66)
  P-trend4   0.17 0.66
n-6 PUFA5    
  <60.77% 166 10.27 (9.81, 10.75) 10.19 (9.77, 10.62)
  60.77–64.19% 165 10.28 (9.85, 10.73) 10.27 (9.88, 10.66)
  ≥64.20% 165 10.20 (9.76, 10.68) 10.30 (9.89, 10.73)
  P-trend4   0.86 0.74
LA (18:2n-6)    
  <52.45% 166 10.20 (9.75, 10.68) 10.21 (9.79, 10.64)
  52.45–56.90% 165 10.27 (9.84, 10.71) 10.23 (9.85, 10.63)
  ≥56.91% 165 10.28 (9.83, 10.75) 10.31 (9.90, 10.75)
  P-trend4   0.83 0.74
GLA (18:3n-6)    
  <0.44% 166 10.03 (9.61, 10.48) 10.13 (9.74, 10.53)
  0.44–0.66% 165 10.27 (9.84, 10.72) 10.26 (9.88, 10.66)
  ≥0.67% 165 10.45 (10.01, 10.92) 10.36 (9.97, 10.77)
  P-trend4   0.20 0.43
DGLA (20:3n-6)    
  <0.45% 166 10.15 (9.71, 10.60) 10.15 (9.75, 10.57)
  0.45–0.56% 165 10.50 (10.06, 10.96) 10.55 (10.16, 10.96)
  ≥0.57% 165 10.11 (9.67, 10.57) 10.05 (9.64, 10.48)
  P-trend4   0.93 0.81
AA (20:4n-6)    
  <6.06% 166 10.42 (9.98, 10.87) 10.34 (9.95, 10.74)
  6.06–7.17% 165 10.20 (9.77, 10.65) 10.23 (9.85, 10.63)
  ≥7.18% 165 10.13 (9.71, 10.57) 10.18 (9.79, 10.58)
  P-trend4   0.37 0.58
n-3 PUFA5    
  <3.35% 166 10.73 (10.27, 11.21) 10.45 (10.04, 10.88)
  3.35–4.71% 165 10.25 (9.82, 10.69) 10.14 (9.75, 10.54)
  ≥4.72% 165 9.79 (9.36, 10.23) 10.16 (9.36, 10.58)
  P-trend4   0.01 0.34
ALA (18:3n-3)    
  <0.56% 167 10.54 (10.10, 11.00) 10.25 (10.03, 10.48)
  0.56–0.67% 166 10.47 (10.04, 10.92) 10.25 (10.03, 10.47)
  ≥0.68% 163 9.75 (9.33, 10.18) 10.25 (10.03, 10.48)
  P-trend4   0.02 0.99
EPA (20:5n-3)    
  <1.66% 166 10.72 (10.26, 11.20) 10.45 (10.03, 10.88)
  1.66–2.79% 165 10.12 (9.70, 10.55) 10.12 (9.75, 10.52)
  ≥2.80% 165 9.93 (9.50, 10.38) 10.18 (9.77, 10.60)
  P-trend4   0.02 0.40
DHA (22:6n-3)    
  <1.00% 166 10.73 (10.27, 11.20) 10.49 (10.09, 10.91)
  1.00–1.31% 165 10.09 (9.67, 10.53) 10.05 (9.68, 10.44)
  ≥1.32% 165 9.95 (9.52, 10.40) 10.21 (9.81, 10.63)
  P-trend4   0.02 0.34
  1. Abbreviations: AA Arachidonic acid, ALA A-linolenic acid, CE Cholesterol ester, DGLA Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, DHA Docosahexaenoic acid, EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid, GLA γ-linolenic acid, LA Linoleic acid, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid.
  2. 1Adjusted for age (y, continuous), sex and workplace [A (surveyed in July) or B (surveyed in November)].
  3. 2Adjusted for age (y, continuous), sex, workplace [A (surveyed in July) or B (surveyed in November)], smoking status (non-smoker or smoker), BMI (kg/m2, continuous), alcohol consumption (non-drinker, <20 g/d or ≥20 g/d), occupational physical activity (sedentary work or active work), non-occupational physical activity (0, 0 < to <5 or ≥5 MET-h/wk), serum folate (ng/mL, continuous), vitamin B6 intake (mg, continuous) and vitamin B12 intake (μg/1000 kcal, continuous).
  4. 3Geometric means (95% confidence interval) of serum homocysteine (nmol/mL).
  5. 4P-trend values were based on multiple regression analysis, with ordinal numbers 0–2 assigned to tertile categories of each fatty acid.
  6. 5N-6 PUFA is the sum of LA, GLA, DGLA, and AA; n-3 PUFA is the sum of ALA, EPA, and DHA; PUFA is the sum of n-6 and n-3 PUFA.