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Table 3 Summary of the effects of alcohol on performance

From: The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance

Alcohol
WADA status: alcohol is prohibited by WADA in competition only. The doping violation threshold is 0.10 g/L. As of 2013, alcohol is banned in the following sports: aeronautics (FAI), archery (FITA), automobile (FIA), karate (WKF), motorcycling (FIM) and powerboating (UIM)
Acute effect Chronic effect Effect on performance EtOH Dose Reference
Reduced left ventricular contractility Increased left ventricular dimensions and worsened left ventricular dysfunction Negative effects on cardiac output 1.15 g/kg body weight Delgado et al. [149]
No mechanism proposed; decreased performance possibly due to reduced myocardial contractility and reduced lung ventilation   Increased 800 m-1500 m run times 0.05 – 0.1 mg/mL blood alcohol concentration McNaughton et al. [140]
Hypoglycemia at 60-minute time-point   Reduced 60-min, treadmill time-trial performance 25 ml in 150 ml grapefruit juice Kendrick et al. [141]
No mechanism proposed.   Reductions in sustained power output during cycling times trials. 0.5 ml/kg FFM Lecoulre et al. [142]