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Table 1 Summary of current evidence on the relationship between dietary factors and supplements and risk of prostate cancer

From: Prostate cancer and the influence of dietary factors and supplements: a systematic review

1. Well-done meat is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer; consumption of red meat should be limited to <500 g per week.
2. High fat intake (mainly saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid) appears related to increased risk of prostate cancer.
3. Milk intake appears to be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer and its intake should be minimized.
4. Tomatoes and tomato-based products may be preventive in early prostate cancer.
5. Cruciferous vegetables may be beneficial but they currently cannot be advocated for prostate cancer prevention due to the paucity of randomized trials.
6. Pomegranate may have a role in both prevention and delaying progression of prostate cancer, but available data are often conflicting.
7. Soy-containing products may be chemopreventive in prostate cancer but further studies are warranted to clarify their impact on PSA, testosterone, and sex-hormone binding globulin levels in men with, or at risk of, prostate cancer.
8. Green tea appears a chemopreventive agent in prostate cancer, but there is inconclusive benefit in patients already with prostate cancer.
9. Selenium supplementation is not recommended in chemoprevention of prostate cancer and very high levels may indeed be pro-carcinogenic.
10. Vitamin A is not recommended as part of chemopreventive diet to prevent prostate cancer.
11. Supplementation with vitamin D is not advocated unless the patient is vitamin D deficient. High levels of vitamin D may be associated with a worse prognosis.
12. There is no evidence regarding benefits of pre- or probiotics in prostate cancer.