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Table 1 Summary of available tocotrienol formulations including source, delivery systems, excipients and composition of tocorienol homologues

From: Bioavailability of tocotrienols: evidence in human studies

Tocotrienol formulations Source Dosage form Delivery system Excipients and vehicles Composition of tocotrienol homologues (% w/w) * Reference
Palm Vitee Palm Capsule Oil suspension Palm olein α: 12-15%, γ: 35-40%, δ: 25-30% [37, 38, 42, 4547]
Tocovid Suprabio® Palm Capsule Self-emulsifying drug delivery system Tween 80, Labrasol, Palm olein/Soybean oil α: 23.5%, γ: 43.2%, δ: 9.8% [22, 26, 28, 40, 44, 48]
Tocomin® 50% Palm Emulsion Self-emulsifying drug delivery system Tween 80, Labrasol, Soybean Oil α: 10.7%, γ: 21.6%, δ: 6.4% [32]
Tri® E Palm Capsule Oil suspension Palm superolein 74% of mixed homologues** [4951]
Tocotrienol-rich fractions (TRF) Palm Capsule Oil suspension Vegetable oils α: 34.6%, γ: 24.6%, δ: 15.0%, [39]
α: 29.3%, β: 3.0%, γ: 28.1%, δ: 8.2% [21]
α: 29..8%, β: 2.9%, γ: 27.0%, δ: 8.6% [23]
66.7% of mixed homologues** [43]
Rice Bran Capsule Oil suspension Vegetable oils α: 14.6%, β: 2.2%, γ: 38.8%, δ: 29.9% [36]
TRF25 containing α: 15.5%, β: 1.6%, γ: 39.4%, δ: 5.2%, desmethyl and didesmethyl: 20.9% [41, 52, 53]
Various compositionally different tocotrienols supplements [54]
Individual tocotrienol homologues Palm Capsule Oil suspension Olive oil 30 mg of γδ-tocotrienols** [55]
Medium-chain triglyceride α, γ and δ-tocotrienyl acetate [56]
  1. *% w/w of tocotrienol homologues calculated based on g / 100 g of total vitamin E content.
  2. **Composition of individual tocotrienol homologue not specified.