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Table 4 Longitudinal studies of resistance training (RT) effects on bone mineral density (BMD1) and biochemical markers of bone metabolism

From: Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

Bemben et al., 2000 Subjects: 25 postmenopausal women (17 RT1, 8 C), 41–60 y Eligibility criteria: No RT previous 6 months; no current or recent HRT Design: Randomized (subjects matched for lumbar BMD, then randomly assigned to groups) Training duration / frequency: 6 months / 3 d·wk-1 (~45 min·d-1) Training intensity: 3 sets, 8–16 reps, 40–80% 1-RM, 12 exercises Calcium supplementation: 600 mg·d-1+125 IU vit. D only for subjects with daily Ca2+ <1500 mg Training supervised: Yes Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: Total body, lumbar, & femoral BMD changes – NS Results-Biomarkers: OC & CTX changes – NS
Fujimura et al., 1997 Subjects: 15 adult men (8 RT, 7 C), 23–31 y Eligibility criteria: No RT previous 2 y Design: Not randomized Training duration / frequency: 4 months / 4 d·wk-1 (~45 min·d-1) Training intensity: 1 set, 10 reps, 60% 1-RM, & 2 sets, 10 reps, 80% 1-RM, 7–8 exercises Calcium supplementation: 600 mg·d-1 Training supervised: Not indicated Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: Total body, lumbar, femoral, radial BMD changes – NS Results-Biomarkers: * OC & BAP ↑ at 1, 2, 3, & 4 months in RT, but not in C     * PICP ↓ at 2 & 4 months in C, but not in RT (not measured at 3 months in C) DPD changes – NS
Gleeson et al., 1990 Subjects: 72 eumenorrheic women (34 RT, 38 C), 23–46 y Eligibility criteria: No previous, regular RT; oral contraceptive users eligible Design: Not randomized Training duration / frequency: 12 months / 3 d·wk-1 (~30 min·d-1) Training intensity: 2 sets, 20 reps, 60% 1-RM, 8 exercises Calcium supplementation: 500 mg·d-1 Training supervised: Not indicated Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: * Percent lumbar BMD change (0.8% ↑ in RT vs. 0.5% ↓ in C) Absolute lumbar (DPA) & calcaneal (SPA) BMD changes – NS     Results-Biomarkers: OC changes – NS
Lohman et al., 1995 Subjects: 56 eumenorrheic women (22 RT, 34 C), 28–39 y Eligibility criteria: No RT previous 2 y; oral contraceptives users not eligible Design: Randomized Training duration / frequency: 18 months / 3 d·wk-1 (~1 hr·d-1) Training intensity: 3 sets, 8–12 reps, 70–80% 1-RM, 12 exercises Calcium supplementation: 500 mg·d-1 Training supervised: Yes Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: * Lumbar BMD ↑ at 5 (2.0%) & 12 (1.6%) months in RT, but not in C     * Trochanteric BMD ↑ at 5 (0.8%), 12 (2.4%), & 18 (1.5%) months in RT, but not in C Total body & radial BMD (SPA) – NS Results-Biomarkers: * OC ↑ in RT at 5, 12, & 18 months, but not in C
Menkes et al., 1993 Subjects: 18 men (11 RT, 7 C), 50–70 y Eligibility criteria: No RT previous 2 y Design: Not randomized Training duration / frequency: 4 months / 3 d·wk-1 Training intensity: 1 set, 15 reps, 8 upper body exercises, & 2 sets, 15 reps, 4 lower body exercises Calcium supplementation: No: subjects instructed to follow diet containing 1000 mg·d-1 calcium Training supervised: Yes Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: * Lumbar (2.0%) & femoral (3.8%) BMD ↑ in RT, but not in C     Total body BMD changes – NS Results-Biomarkers: * OC ↑ at 3 & 4 months, & BAP ↑ at 4 months in RT, but not in C     TRAP changes – NS
Nelson et al., 1994 Subjects: 39 postmenopausal women (20 RT, 19 C), 50–70 y Eligibility criteria: No current regular exercise; no HRT previous 12 months Design: Randomized Training duration / frequency: 12 months / 2 d·wk-1 (~45 min·d-1) Training intensity: 3 sets, 8 reps, 80% 1-RM, 5 exercises Calcium supplementation: No: subjects consuming < 800 mg·d-1 counseled to ↑ intake Training supervised: Yes Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: * Lumbar (1.0%) & femoral (0.9%) BMD ↑ in RT, but ↓ in C (lumb. -1.8, fem. -2.5%)     Total body BMD changes – NS Results-Biomarkers: * OC ↑ in RT, but ↓ in C
Pruitt et al., 1992 Subjects: 26 postmenopausal women (17 RT, 9 C), RT 53.6 ± 1.0 y, C 55.6 ± 0.9 y Eligibility criteria: No RT previous 6 months; no previous HRT Design: Not randomized (early respondents placed in RT group) Training duration / frequency: 9 months / 3 d·wk-1 (~40 min·d-1) Training intensity: 1 set, 10–15 reps, 11 exercises Calcium supplementation: Not indicated Training supervised: Not indicated Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: * Lumbar BMD (DPA) ↑ in RT (1.6%), but ↓ in C (-3.6%)     Femoral (DPA) & forearm (SPA) BMD changes – NS Results-Biomarkers: * Baseline OC greater in RT than in C     OC, BAP, & HYP changes – NS
Pruitt et al., 1995 Subjects: 26 postmenopausal women (15 RT2, 11 C), 65–79 y Eligibility criteria: No previous RT; no previous HRT or HRT ≥ 1 y Design: Randomized Training duration / frequency: 12 months / 3 d·wk-1 (~50–55 min·d-1) Training intensity: 3 sets, 7–14 reps, 40–80% 1-RM, 10 exercises Calcium supplementation: 500 mg·d-1+200 IU vitamin D Training supervised: Yes Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: Lumbar & hip BMD changes – NS Results-Biomarkers: OC changes – NS
Rockwell et al., 1990 Subjects: 17 eumenorrheic women (10 RT, 7 C), RT 36.2 ± 1.3 y, C 40.4 ± 1.6y Eligibility criteria: No previous RT; oral contraceptive users not eligible Design: Not randomized Training duration / frequency: 9 months / 2 d·wk-1 (~45 min·d-1) Training intensity: 2 sets, 12 reps, 70% 1-RM, 8 exercises Calcium supplementation: 500 mg·d-1 +200 IU vitamin D Training supervised: Not indicated Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: * Lumbar BMD ↓ in RT at 4.5 (-2.9%) & 9 months (-4.0%); no change in C     Femoral BMD changes – NS Results-Biomarkers: * Baseline OC greater in RT than in C * OC ↑ in RT & in C at 4.5 & 9 months
Ryan et al., 1994 Subjects: 37 men (21 RT, 16 C), 51–71 y Eligibility criteria: No RT previous 6 months Design: Not randomized Training duration / frequency: 4 months / 3 d·wk-1 Training intensity: 1 set, 15 reps using variable resistance machines, 14 exercises Calcium supplementation: Not indicated Training supervised: Not indicated Results-Strength: * Strength ↑ in RT, but not in C Results-BMD: * Femoral BMD ↑ in RT (2.8%), but not in C     Total body & lumbar BMD (DXA) changes – NS Results-Biomarkers: * TRAP ↑ in RT & in C (no difference between groups)     Changes in OC & BAP – NS
  1. BMD1 = all BMD measurements made using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) unless otherwise specified (DPA = dual-photon absorptiometry; SPA = single-photon absorptiometry)
  2. RT = resistance training
  3. C = control
  4. RT1 = two training groups: 10 high-load RT & 7 high-repetition RT
  5. HRT = hormone replacement therapy
  6. * = statistically significant
  7. NS = non-significant
  8. OC = serum osteocalcin
  9. CTX = urinary C-telopeptide
  10. BAP = serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase
  11. DPD = urinary deoxypyridinoline
  12. PICP = plasma carboxy-terminal pro-collagen 1 extension peptide
  13. TRAP = serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase
  14. HYP = urinary hydroxyproline
  15. RT2 = two training groups: 8 high-intensity RT & 7 low-intensity RT