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Table 1 Examples of genes regulated by GR

From: The role of glucocorticoid action in the pathophysiology of the Metabolic Syndrome

Gene Names Function Regulation Reference
Glutamine synthetase Amino acid metabolism Up 42
TAT Amino acid catabolism Up 43, 44
Tryptophan oxygenase Amino acid catabolism Up 45
PEPCK (liver) Gluconeogenesis Up 46
G6Pase Gluconeogenesis Up 47, 48
Angiotensinogen Precursor of angiotensin I; vasoconstriction, electrolyte balance, etc. Up 49
Leptin Energy metabolism Up 50
VLDLR Lipoprotein metabolism Up 51
PEPCK (adipose) Glyceroneogenesis Down 52
aP2 Intracellular lipid shuttling and metabolism Up 53
GLUT4 Glucose transport Up 53
HSL Lipolysis Up 53
LPL Lipid metabolism Up 53
TNF-α Inflammation and apoptosis Down 53
Osteocalcin Marker for mature osteoblasts Down 54, 55
CRH Stress mediated/feedback hormone release Down 56
POMC Precursor of pituitary hormones Down 57, 58
Prolactin Hormone critical for reproduction Down 59
Proliferin Angiogenesis Down 60, 61
Glycoprotein hormone α-subunit Common subunit of gonadotropin hormones Down 62, 63
IL-6 Proinflammatory cytokine Down 64
IL-8 Proinflammatory cytokine Down 65
Collagenase Matrix protease Down 66
ICAM-1 Inflammatory response Down 39
  1. Abbreviations: TAT, tyrosine aminotransferase; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; G6Pase, glucose-6-phosphatase; VLDLR, very low density lipoprotein receptor; aP2, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein or A-FABP; GLUT-4, glucose transporter 4; HSL, hormone sensitive lipase; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α; CRH, corticotrophin-releasing hormone; POMC, proopiomelanocortin; IL-6, interleukin 6; IL-8, interleukin 8; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1.