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Table 5 Changes in upper- and lower-body strength from PRE to POST ( x ¯ ± SE).

From: Minimal nutrition intervention with high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement improves body composition and exercise benefits in overweight adults: A randomized controlled trial

  PRE POST CHANGE
Bench Press (kg)**    
   CON 49.9 ± 8.8 51.3 ± 9.0 1.4 ± 0.4
   EX 47.7 ± 7.4 54.0 ± 5.7 6.3 ± 0.8a,b
   EXFS 50.0 ± 6.4 58.5 ± 7.2 8.5 ± 1.0a,b
Squat (kg)**    
   CON 60.9 ± 8.4 61.9 ± 8.0 1.0 ± 0.6
   EX 59.2 ± 7.2 70.8 ± 7.3 11.6 ± 1.4a,b
   EXFS 61.0 ± 6.9 74.9 ± 7.2 13.9 ± 1.8a,b
  1. Upper- and lower-body strength, as assessed by five-repetition maximum (5RM) bench press (upper) and squat (lower). CON = control; EX = exercise only; EXFS = exercise + food supplement. *Main effect for time (p ≤ 0.05); **Group-by-Time interaction (p ≤ 0.05). aDifferent from PRE (p ≤ 0.017); bDifferent from CON (p ≤ 0.05).