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Table 3 Effect of intervention diets on cardiovascular risk variables at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of intervention

From: Enhancement of a modified Mediterranean-style, low glycemic load diet with specific phytochemicals improves cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with metabolic syndrome and hypercholesterolemia in a randomized trial

Variable Visit PED arm MED arm P value2 (Difference between arm) Adjusted P value3
   Value (mean ± SE) Mean % change from baseline Value (mean ± SE) Mean % change from baseline   
Cholesterol (mmol/L) Baseline 6.57 ± 0.15   6.67 ± 0.20    
  8 weeks 5.67 ± 0.22** -13.8% 6.09 ± 0.25** -8.7% 0.13 0.04
  12 weeks 5.59 ± 0.14** -14.5% 6.27 ± 0.22* -6.3% 0.03 0.04
TG (mmol/L) Baseline 2.78 ± 0.22   2.37 ± 0.23    
  8 weeks 2.02 ± 0.25** -27.2% 1.84 ± 0.17** -22.3% 0.27 0.05
  12 weeks 1.86 ± 0.12** -35.2% 2.09 ± 0.19 -14.3% 0.03 0.01
HDL (mmol/L) Baseline 0.98 ± 0.05   1.02 ± 0.05    
  8 weeks 0.99 ± 0.05 0.7% 1.00 ± 0.04 -1.6% 0.34 0.45
  12 weeks 1.05 ± 0.05* 7.0% 1.04 ± 0.05 2.7% 0.18 0.21
LDL (mmol/L) Baseline 4.39 ± 0.17   4.64 ± 0.20    
  8 weeks 3.78 ± 0.19** -16.8% 4.24 ± 0.20** -9.8% 0.11 0.19
  12 weeks 3.69 ± 0.12** -17.3% 4.28 ± 0.17* -8.4% 0.11 0.18
Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) Baseline 5.59 ± 0.14   5.65 ± 0.19    
  8 weeks 4.67 ± 0.20** -16.4% 5.09 ± 0.25** 10.0% 0.19 0.03
  12 weeks 4.54 ± 0.14** -18.2% 5.23 ± 0.22* -8.0% 0.02 0.03
LDL particle number (nmol/L) Baseline 1634 ± 57   1733 ± 84    
  8 weeks 1453 ± 63* -11.9% 1618 ± 108 -6.6% 0.24 0.19
  12 weeks 1455 ± 63* -11.9% 1629 ± 109* -7.0% 0.26 0.31
Chol/HDL Baseline 6.9 ± 0.3   6.8 ± 0.3    
  8 weeks 5.9 ± 0.3** -14.3% 6.2 ± 0.3** -9.0% 0.13 0.09
  12 weeks 5.6 ± 0.3** -19.5% 6.3 ± 0.4** -8.9% 0.01 0.02
TG/HDL Baseline 3.1 ± 1.7   2.5 ± 1.4    
  8 weeks 2.1 ± 1.3** -30.6% 1.9 ± 0.9** -23.2% 0.20 0.07
  12 weeks 1.9 ± 0.7** -42.7% 2.1 ± 1.1 -17.6% 0.02 0.01
apo A-I (g/L) Baseline 1.94 ± 0.06   1.96 ± 0.07    
  8 weeks 1.89 ± 0.05 -2.5% 1.88 ± 0.06 -3.9% 0.32 0.30
  12 weeks 1.90 ± 0.06 -2.1% 1.87 ± 0.06 -4.3% 0.24 0.16
apo B (g/L) Baseline 1.48 ± 0.05   1.50 ± 0.06    
  8 weeks 1.30 ± 0.05** -12.1% 1.36 ± 0.06** -9.9% 0.32 0.21
  12 weeks 1.21 ± 0.04** -17.5% 1.36 ± 0.06** -9.9% 0.09 0.14
apoB/apoA-I Baseline 0.78 ± 0.03   0.78 ± 0.04    
  8 weeks 0.70 ± 0.03* -10.3% 0.73 ± 0.04* -6.4% 0.26 0.13
  12 weeks 0.66 ± 0.03** -15.4% 0.75 ± 0.05* -6.3% 0.07 0.08
Fasting Glucose (mmol/L) Baseline 5.49 ± 0.10   5.63 ± 0.11    
  8 weeks 5.31 ± 0.11 -3.3% 5.46 ± 0.10 -2.9% 0.45 0.42
  12 weeks 5.39 ± 0.10 -2.2% 5.41 ± 0.12* -4.8% 0.85 0.92
Fasting Insulin (pmol/L) Baseline 82.65 ± 8.33   110.43 ± 13.13    
  8 weeks 53.48 ± 4.58** -35.2% 75.70 ± 10.42* -31.0% 0.66 0.82
  12 weeks 60.42 ± 5.69** -26.8% 88.90 ± 11.74* -22.3% 0.59 0.74
HOMA1 Baseline 3.0 ± 0.4   4.1 ± 0.6    
  8 weeks 1.8 ± 0.2** -38.9% 2.7 ± 0.4* -32.6% 0.63 0.81
  12 weeks 2.0 ± 0.2* -29.7% 3.0 ± 0.5 -24.9% 0.61 0.76
HbA1c % Baseline 5.7 ± 0.1   6.0 ± 0.1    
  8 weeks 5.6 ± 0.1* -1.9% 5.9 ± 0.1** -2.7% 0.77 0.72
  12 weeks 5.6 ± 0.1** -2.6% 5.8 ± 0.1** -3.8% 0.82 0.87
  1. *Different from baseline, P < 0.05
  2. **Different from baseline, P < 0.01
  3. 1HOMA score calculated as follows: [(insulin (pmol/L)*glucose (mmol/L))/135].
  4. 2Comparing the values between arms using 1-sided unpaired t-test
  5. 3Adjusted for body weight, caloric intake, and carbohydrate intake