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Table 2 Effect of diet programs on indices of glycemic control and body weight

From: The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Week 0 Week 12 Week 24 Week 0 to 24 Between Groups Between Groups Adjusted*
  mean ± sd mean ± sd mean ± sd mean change p value p value
LGID n = 29 n = 29 n = 29    
   Hemoglobin A1c, % 8.3 ± 1.9 7.5 ± 1.7 7.8 ± 2.1 -0.5 0.03 0.06
   Fasting glucose, mg/dL 166.8 ± 63.7 140.7 ± 39.9 150.8 ± 47.4 -16.0** 0.67 0.76
   Fasting insulin, μU/mL 14.8 ± 6.9 13.9 ± 9.9 12.6 ± 6.5 -2.2** 0.10 0.84
   Body mass index, kg/m2 37.9 ± 6.0 36.5 ± 5.7 35.2 ± 6.1 -2.7** 0.05 0.10
   Body weight, kg 105.2 ± 19.8 101.0 ± 16.9 98.3 ± 20.3 -6.9** 0.008 0.01
LCKD n = 21 n = 21 n = 21    
   Hemoglobin A1c, % 8.8 ± 1.8 7.2 ± 1.2 7.3 ± 1.5 -1.5**   
   Fasting glucose, mg/dL 178.1 ± 72.9 156.4 ± 50.7 158.2 ± 50.0 -19.9**   
   Fasting insulin, uU/mL 20.4 ± 9.3 14.3 ± 8.3 14.4 ± 6.9 -6.0**   
   Body mass index, kg/m2 37.8 ± 6.7 34.4 ± 5.6 33.9 ± 5.8 -3.9**   
   Body weight, kg 108.4 ± 20.5 100.1 ± 17.8 97.3 ± 17.6 -11.1**   
  1. LGID = low-glycemic, reduced-calorie diet; LCKD = low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet
  2. * Adjusted for baseline values.
  3. ** p < 0.05 for within-group change from Baseline to Week 24.