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Table 4 Effect of diet programs on metabolic syndrome parameters and fasting lipid profiles

From: The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Low glycemic, reduced-calorie diet group (n = 29) Low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet group (n = 21)
Test Week 0 Week 24 Week 0 to 24 Week 0 Week 24 Week 0 to 24
  mean ± sd mean ± sd mean change mean ± sd mean ± sd mean change
Fasting glucose, mg/dL 166.8 ± 63.7 150.8 ± 47.4 -16.0 * 178.1 ± 72.9 158.2 ± 50.0 -19.9*
Waist circumference, inches 47.0 ± 5.1 42.4 ± 5.5 -4.6 * 47.1 ± 5.5 41.8 ± 5.3 -5.3 *
Triglycerides, mg/dL 167.1 ± 125.7 147.8 ± 128.5 -19.3 210.4 ± 10.3 142.9 ± 76.9 -67.5 *
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 48.7 ± 11.8 48.7 ± 10.1 -0 44.0 ± 8.7 49.6 ± 11.7 +5.6 *
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 140.8 ± 15.7 130.1 ± 17.1 -10.7 * 144.4 ± 15.0 127.8 ± 13.4 -16.6 *
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 84.1 ± 11.0 78.5 ± 8.7 -5.6 * 83.9 ± 10.3 75.8 ± 10.9 -8.1 *
Body mass index, kg/m2 37.9 ± 6.0 35.2 ± 6.1 -2.7 * 37.8 ± 6.7 33.9 ± 5.8 -3.9 *
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 190.6 ± 43.8 184.8 ± 45.6 -5.8 191.4 ± 32.0 187.0 ± 35.8 -4.4
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 113.8 ± 40.9 111.0 ± 42.2 -2.8 105.8 ± 25.7 107.1 ± 26.3 +1.3
VLDL cholesterol, mg/dL 27.7 ± 13.2 24.4 ± 12.3 -3.3* 37.3 ± 14.9 27.3 ± 15.2 -10.0*
Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio 4.1 ± 1.3 3.9 ± 1.2 -0.2 4.5 ± 1.1 4.1 ± 4.1 -0.4
Triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio 3.9 ± 3.7 3.3 ± 3.1 -0.6 5.2 ± 3.4 3.4 ± 3.0 -1.8*
  1. These changes were observed with a reduction or elimination of diabetic medication as shown in Table 3.
  2. HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; VLDL = very-low-density lipoprotein
  3. * p < 0.05 for within-group change from Baseline to Week 24.
  4. p < 0.05, for between-groups comparison of changes from Baseline to Week 24.
  5. P values with adjustment for baseline values: fasting glucose: 0.76, waist circumference: 0.43, triglycerides: 0.17, HDL: 0.09, systolic blood pressure: 0.89, diastolic blood pressure: 0.48, body mass index: 0.10, total cholesterol: 0.85, LDL: 0.79, VLDL: 0.24, total cholesterol/HDL ratio: 0.92, triglyceride/HDL ratio: 0.54.