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Table 1 Baseline anthropometric, dietary analysis, body composition and biochemical parameters for the high energy, high carbohydrate diet + exercise (HED; 2,600: 55:15:30), no diet + exercise (ND), very low carbohydrate, high protein diet + exercise (VLCHP: 1,200; 63:7:30), low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet + exercise (LCMP: 1,200; 50:20:30), high carbohydrate, low protein diet + exercise (HCLP: 1,200; 55:15:30) and no diet + no exercise control (CON).

From: Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

Demographics Grand Mean HED ND VLCHP LCMP HCLP CON P-value
Age (years) 38 ± 9 35 ± 10 37 ± 10 39 ± 7 38 ± 9 41 ± 8 32 ± 10 0.10
Height (cm) 164 ± 7 164 ± 6 163 ± 8 165 ± 6 165 ± 7 163 ± 7 163 ± 6 0.65
Weight (kg) 94 ± 19 93 ± 13 81 ± 13d 108 ± 19 92 ± 18d 87 ± 13d 89 ± 18 <0.001
Body mass index 35 ± 6 34 ± 4 31 ± 4d 39 ± 7 34 ± 6d 33 ± 4d 34 ± 6 <0.001
(kg·m-2)         
Waist (cm) 101 ± 13 104 ± 7 93 ± 12d 108 ± 14 101 ± 13 96 ± 11d 95 ± 13 <0.001
DXA fat-free mass (kg) 49 ± 8 49 ± 7 43 ± 7d 54 ± 7 48 ± 8d 45 ± 6d 48 ± 6 <0.001
DXA fat mass (kg) 39 ± 11 37 ± 7 32 ± 7d 46 ± 12 37 ± 10d 35 ± 8d 38 ± 9 <0.001
REE (kcals·d-1) 1730 ± 300 1331 ± 193 1595 ± 228d, f 1955 ± 278f 1705 ± 249d, f 1645 ± 222d, f 1753 ± 274f <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 125 ± 13 127 ± 20 119 ± 10 129 ± 15 124 ± 9 126 ± 10 121 ± 14 0.10
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 83 ± 8 86 ± 14 79 ± 7 84 ± 8 83 ± 8 84 ± 7 79 ± 7 0.13
VO2 (ml/kg/min) 21 ± 5 22 ± 3 24 ± 5 19 ± 6 22 ± 5 22 ± 4 23 ± 5 <0.001
Biochemical parameters Grand Mean HED ND VLCHP LCMP HCLP CON P-value
Total cholesterol 5.0 ± 0.9 4.9 ± 0.8 5.1 ± 0.9 4.9 ± 0.7 5.0 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 1.1 5.3 ± 1.1 0.87
(mmol·L-1)         
HDL cholesterol 1.4 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.3 0.36
(mmol·L-1)         
LDL cholesterol 3.0 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 0.9 0.62
(mmol·L-1)         
Triglycerides 1.5 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 0.9 1.5 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 0.8 0.50
(mmol·L-1)         
Glucose 5.3 ± 0.7 5.1 ± 0.5 5.0 ± 0.3 5.3 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 0.9 5.3 ± 0.5 5.2 ± 0.7 0.57
(mmol·L-1)         
Insulin 4.9 ± 4.0 3.3 ± 1.6 4.3 ± 2.3 6.0 ± 3.9 5.9 ± 6.0 3.8 ± 2.4 3.7 ± 2.0 <0.05
(pmol·L-1)         
HOMA-IR 1.15 ± 1.0 0.75 ± 0.4 0.95 ± 0.5 1.43 ± 1.0 1.40 ± 1.4 0.89 ± 0.6 0.89 ± 0.6 <0.05
Leptin 103 ± 48 98 ± 39 94 ± 35 107 ± 37 113 ± 67 99 ± 48 84 ± 39 0.56
(pgm·L-1)         
Dietary Intake Grand Mean HED ND VLCHP LCMP HCLP CON P-value
Caloric intake (kcal/kg/day) 22.4 ± 6.9 23.7 ± 4.2 21.2 ± 6.6 20.5 ± 7.5 23.3 ± 7.5 23.6 ± 6.0 --- 0.29
Carbohydrate (g/kg/day) 2.8 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 0.8 2.4 ± 1.4 2.8 ± 1.1 3.1 ± 1.0 --- 0.19
Protein (g/kg/day) 0.88 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 0.2 --- 0.76
Fat (g/kg/day) 0.89 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.3 --- 0.90
  1. All data is presented as means ± SD at baseline. Significance level was set at 0.05.
  2. dDifferent than VLCHP, P < 0.001 – 0.05; fDifferent than HED, P < 0.001. NOTE: No other differences at baseline existed (P > 0.05).