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Table 3 Cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness changes for the high energy, high carbohydrate diet + exercise (HED; 2,600: 55:15:30), no diet + exercise (ND), very low carbohydrate, high protein diet + exercise (VLCHP: 1,200; 63:7:30), low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet + exercise (LCMP: 1,200; 50:20:30), high carbohydrate, low protein diet + exercise (HCLP: 1,200; 55:15:30).

From: Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

     P-value
Variable Group Mean 14 Week Delta Within Group G × T
Max VO2 (ml·kg·min--1) HED 1.0 (-0.79, +2.73) 0.48 <0.05
  ND 0.8 (-1.45, +3.00) 0.27  
  VLCHP 3.6 (+2.30, +4.94) <0.001  
  LCMP 1.1 (+0.13, +2.26)d <0.01  
  HCLP 0.9 (+0.05, +1.67)d <0.001  
  CON 0.1 (-2.92, +3.13) 0.52  
BP 1 RM (kg·kg-1) HED 0.06 (+0.03, +0.09) <0.01 0.44
  ND 0.06 (+0.04, +0.08) <0.001  
  VLCHP 0.04 (+0.03, +0.06) <0.001  
  LCMP 0.09 (+0.03, +0.16) <0.05  
  HCLP 0.05 (+0.03, +0.06) <0.001  
  CON 0.02 (-0.02, +0.05) 0.59  
BP Lifting Volume (kg·kg-1) HED 1.8 (-6.07, +9.70) 0.20 0.35
  ND 1.2 (-3.99, +6.37) 0.90  
  VLCHP 3.4 (-0.29, +7.09) 0.30  
  LCMP 1.0 (-3.16, +5.25) 0.18  
  HCLP 2.9 (+0.31, +5.58) <0.05  
  CON 2.7 (-2.46, +7.81) 0.59  
LP 1 RM (kg·kg-1) HED 0.2 (-0.02, +0.47) 0.11 0.38
  ND 0.2 (+0.09, +0.43) <0.001  
  VLCHP 0.3 (+0.22, +0.48) <0.001  
  LCMP 0.5 (+0.20, +0.73) <0.005  
  HCLP 0.2 (+0.13, +0.32) <0.001  
  CON 0.1 (-0.15, +0.37) 0.54  
LP Lifting Volume (kg·kg-1) HED 2.0 (-5.76, +9.84) 0.45 0.32
  ND 0.9 (-4.32, +6.08) 0.32  
  VLCHP 4.5 (+0.93, +8.03) <0.05  
  LCMP 3.9 (-0.79, +8.58) 0.24  
  HCLP 3.9 (+1.40, +6.48) <0.01  
  CON 2.3 (-2.73, +7.38) 0.28  
  1. Dietary intake is presented as energy (i.e., calories) intake: % carbohydrate: protein: fat. All data is presented as the mean plus the 95% confidence intervals for the delta response at week 14. Main effects for time are provided as within-group P-values. Group × time interaction effects are provided as GxT P-values.Significance level was set at 0.05.
  2. dDifferent than VLCHP, P < 0.05