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Table 1 Demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics of males and females with and without the metabolic syndrome

From: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet moderates the association of aminotransferases with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome; the ATTICA study

Males, n = 1514 Metabolic syndrome No metabolic syndrome p
Subjects, n 379 1135  
Age, years 50 ± 11 44 ± 13 < 0.001
Physical inactivity (n), % (136) 36 (488) 43 0.002
Current smoking (n), % (174) 46 (533) 47 0.81
Med Diet score (0–55) 23.4 ± 6.1 24.5 ± 5.5 0.01
Hypertension (n), % (242) 64 (306) 27 < 0.001
Hypercholesterolemia (n), % (216) 57 (420) 37 < 0.001
Diabetes (n), % (72) 19 (45) 4 < 0.001
Overweight (n), % (208) 56 (533) 47 < 0.001
Obesity (n), % (167) 44 (136) 12 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.8 ± 0.2 26.5 ± 0.1 < 0.001
γ-GT (IU/L) 28 ± 12 26 ± 14 0.24
AST (IU/L) 27 ± 14 27 ± 11 0.98
ALT (IU/L) 26 ± 17 23 ± 12 0.25
AST/ALT ratio 1.11 ± 0.3 1,28 ± 0,48 0.01
Females, n = 1528 Metabolic syndrome No metabolic syndrome p
Subjects, n 228 1300  
Age, years 53 ± 14 43 ± 14 < 0.001
Physical inactivity (n), % (62) 27 (520) 40 < 0.001
Current smoking (n), % (78) 34 (520) 40 0.07
Med Diet score (0–55) 24 ± 6.8 28.2 ± 7.2 < 0.001
Hypertension (n), % (128) 56 (234) 18 < 0.001
Hypercholesterolemia (n), % (114) 50 (442) 34 < 0.001
Diabetes (n), % (52) 23 (39) 3 < 0.001
Overweight (n), % (87) 38 (377) 29 < 0.001
Obesity (n), % (105) 46 (130) 10 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.8 ± 4.9 24.5 ± 4.3 < 0.001
γ-GT (IU/L) 21 ± 12 17 ± 13 0.02
AST (IU/L) 23 ± 9 23 ± 11 0.76
ALT (IU/L) 20 ± 12 18 ± 10 0.18
AST/ALT ratio 1.26 ± 0.3 1.44 ± 0.6 0.018
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean values ± standard deviation, while categorical variables are presented as absolute number and frequencies.