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Table 2 Important biological effects of CLA in human subjects.

From: Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

Treatment Effect Ref
CLA with creatine CLA and creatine as adjuncts increased mictochondrial function by reducing sarcopenia and decreased oxidative stress in older adults [116]
CLA with ω-3 fatty acids prevents increased abdominal fat and increases fat-free mass and adiponectin. [28]
9-CLA No adverse effect on coronary vascular disease [126]
9-CLA Modest anti-inflammatroy effect in allegic subjects [32]
CLA with γ-oryzanol Reduced blood pressure and body fat. [127]
9-and 10-CLA Enhanced fat oxidation and energy expenditure during sleep [50]
10-CLA Anti-lipogenic effect in lactating women's mammary tissue [128]
CLA Reduce weight gain induced by psychotropic medication [129]
CLA Favourable effect on serum insulin, but no effect on body composition, energy expenditure of apetite. [101]
CLA Increased resting metabolic rate, PPAR-γ and hormone-sensitive lipase [68]
CLA No effect on glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity on obese population. [41]
Trans fatty acids (t-11/t-12, 18:1) Gender-based gene expression [59]
CLA Inhibition on leptin, adiponection - contribute to insulin resistance [26]
CLA and Calcium Reduces pregnancy-induced hypertension and decreases the intracellular concentration of ionised free calcium in peripheral blood lymphocytes. [130]
CLA Do not beneficially change risk factors for cardiovascular disease or diabetes [94]
CLA and Vaccenic acid No effect on blood pressure or arterial elasticity in healthy young men. [131]
CLA Affect lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and reduced body weight [27]
CLA and other PUFA Possible role in preventing renal carcinoma [132]
CLA Reduce colorectal carcinoma [133]
CLA Enhanced immunological function [102, 113]
CLA Enhanced C-reactive protein [43]
CLA Suppresses rheumatoid arthritis [109]
CLA Lipid peroxidation [124]
CLA Not good to treat metabolic syndrome [134]
CLA Not associated with breast cancer [76]
10-CLA Induces hyperproinsulinaemia, which predicts diabetes and cardiovascular disease [124]
CLA Ptotective effect on the risk of metastasis in breast cancer [75]
10-CLA Increases oxidative stress and inflammatroy biomarkers in obese men [135]
CLA Positive impact on cardioprotective effect. [89]
CLA Modulation of risk factor associated with atherosclerosis [125]