Skip to main content

Table 1 Background characteristics of participants

From: Acute metabolic responses to a high-carbohydrate meal in outpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with a low-carbohydrate diet: a crossover meal tolerance study

  All subjects
(n = 31)
Moderate CARD subjects
(n = 18)
Strict CARD subjects
(n = 13)
P*
Male/Female 17/14 9/9 8/5  
Age (yrs) 62 ± 7 62 ± 6 62 ± 7 0.98
Body mass index 23.2 ± 3.4 22.9 ± 3.3 23.6 ± 3.5 0.56
Duration of diabetes (months) 89 ± 55 80 ± 40 101 ± 68 0.34
Duration of CARD (months) 22 ± 16 27 ± 16 16 ± 13 0.040
HbA1c (%) 6.9 ± 0.4 6.9 ± 0.4 6.8 ± 0.4 0.37
HbA1c before CARD (%) 8.9 ± 2.0 8.3 ± 1.4 9.6 ± 2.4 0.099
Serum LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 117 ± 21 110 ± 17 126 ± 22 0.040
Serum HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 62 ± 12 61 ± 13 64 ± 10 0.57
Serum triglyceride (mg/dl) 94 ± 42 98 ± 37 111 ± 58 0.47
Dietary intake     
   Total energy (kcal/day) 1808 ± 495 1713 ± 423 1990 ± 571 0.15
   Carbohydrate (g/day) 158 ± 48 179 ± 35 127 ± 46 0.002
   Carbohydrate (% energy) 36 ± 10 42 ± 4 26 ± 7 < 0.001
   Fat (g/day) 75 ± 21 67 ± 17 92 ± 26 0.006
   Fat (% energy) 38 ± 9 35 ± 5 44 ± 12 0.033
   Protein (g/day) 81 ± 21 78 ± 22 90 ± 21 0.13
   Protein (% energy) 18 ± 3 18 ± 3 19 ± 4 0.71
  1. Plus-minus values are means ± SD. CARD: Carbohydrate-reduced diet, HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c.
  2. *: P for the difference between the moderate and strict CARD subjects.