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Table 3 Differences in the time course for postprandial plasma glucose and serum insulin, ketone body, FFA and triglyceride levels between the moderate and strict CARD subjects after intake of the two meals

From: Acute metabolic responses to a high-carbohydrate meal in outpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with a low-carbohydrate diet: a crossover meal tolerance study

  High-carbohydrate meal
  Moderate CARD subjects (n = 18) Strict CARD subjects (n = 13) P*
  Baseline 30 min 60 min 120 min Baseline 30 min 60 min 120 min  
Glucose (mg/dl) 129 ± 18 214 ± 34 229 ± 35 213 ± 39 142 ± 20 223 ± 33 245 ± 42 227 ± 48 0.13
Insulin (μIU/ml) 6.2 ± 4.6 24.2 ± 13.4 36.3 ± 26.4 37.3 ± 30.8 6.2 ± 2.2 18.2 ± 7.3 29.9 ± 13.2 30.8 ± 13.6 0.51
BHB (μmol/l) 80 ± 55 33 ± 14 25 ± 7 17 ± 4 231 ± 169 104 ± 89 53 ± 39 29 ± 14 0.001
Acetoacetate(μmol/l) 22.5 ± 13.8 13.8 ± 5.3 13.5 ± 5.6 15.4 ± 4.1 60.2 ± 40.5 32.9 ± 25.4 24.3 ± 14.3 21.5 ± 7.9 0.001
FFAs (mEq/l) 0.50 ± 0.15 0.35 ± 0.13 0.24 ± 0.10 0.11 ± 0.04 0.69 ± 0.29 0.44 ± 0.14 0.31 ± 0.16 0.14 ± 0.07 0.06
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 94 ± 41 101 ± 41 103 ± 40 107 ± 43 108 ± 59 109 ± 48 106 ± 47 95 ± 44 0.014
  Low-carbohydrate meal
  Moderate CARD subjects (n = 18) Strict CARD subjects (n = 13) P*
  Baseline 30 min 60 min 120 min Baseline 30 min 60 min 120 min  
Glucose (mg/dl) 135 ± 23 137 ± 25 139 ± 25 137 ± 25 144 ± 19 151 ± 16 151 ± 19 149 ± 16 0.35
Insulin (μIU/ml) 7.1 ± 5.7 10.9 ± 7.8 12.7 ± 9.3 11.7 ± 8.8 5.5 ± 2.4 9.6 ± 3.3 10.1 ± 3.1 10.9 ± 5.2 0.67
BHB (μmol/l) 56 ± 30 51 ± 19 59 ± 23 78 ± 32 232 ± 247 187 ± 195 174 ± 211 179 ± 139 0.012
Acetoacetate (μmol/l) 17.4 ± 9.1 20.6 ± 8.0 27.1 ± 11.0 42.1 ± 22.0 56.5 ± 44.6 63.9 ± 57.9 69.0 ± 67.1 84.4 ± 51.2 0.95
FFAs (mEq/l) 0.52 ± 0.21 0.46 ± 0.22 0.46 ± 0.22 0.54 ± 0.21 0.63 ± 0.32 0.50 ± 0.15 0.52 ± 0.19 0.59 ± 0.14 0.53
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 95 ± 35 103 ± 36 125 ± 44 169 ± 62 77 ± 30 83 ± 27 108 ± 42 152 ± 71 0.89
  1. Values are means ± SD. CARD: carbohydrate-reduced diet, BHB: β-hydroxybutyrate, FFAs: free fatty acids.
  2. *: P for the difference in the time course between the moderate and strict CARD subjects.