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Table 1 Anthropometrical, clinical and metabolic characteristics of participants, according to tertiles (T) of energy-adjusted fruit and vegetable consumption (n = 120)

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption and proinflammatory gene expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in young adults: a translational study

Energy-adj. fruit and vegetable consumption T1 (n = 39)
< 384 g/d
T2 (n = 42)
384-660 g/d
T3 (n = 39)
> 660 g/d
P-valuea
Age (y) 21 ± 2b 21 ± 3 21 ± 3 0.509
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.6 ± 3.0c 22.4 ± 2.8 21.7 ± 2.89 0.028
Waist circumference (cm) 76.8 ± 8.3c 74.3 ± 8.8 70.9 ± 8.3 0.025
Systolic BP (mmHg) 117 ± 11c 115 ± 11 111 ± 10 0.015
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 67 ± 7c 66 ± 7 63 ± 8 0.018
Glucose (mg/dl) 85.8 ± 7.6 85.4 ± 9.4 85.2 ± 7.3 0.155
Insulin (μIU/l) 7.2 ± 2.9 8.2 ± 3.9 7.4 ± 3.5 0.966
HOMA-IR 1.6 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.7 0.662
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 175 ± 26 179 ± 26 169 ± 29 0.294
LDL-c (mg/dl) 102 ± 21 104 ± 23 101 ± 27 0.824
HDL-c (mg/dl) 60 ± 15 61 ± 12 56 ± 12.3 0.242
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 67 ± 29 71 ± 27 63 ± 23 0.385
NEFA (mmol/l) 0.43 ± 0.22 0.37 ± 0.14 0.32 ± 0.22 0.116
CRP (mg/l) 1.3 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.8 1.0 ± 0.7 0.217
Homocysteine (μmol/l) 15.0 ± 7.6c 12.6 ± 3.2 10.0 ± 3.2 0.013
IL6 (pg/ml) 1.3 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.8 0.607
TNFα (pg/ml) 2.3 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.5 1.6 ± 1.2 0.577
Self-reported PA n, (%) 21 (61.5) 24 (50) 25 (66) 0.237
MET (h-week) 35.7 ± 32.7 38.2 ± 27.3 42.7 ± 27.5 0.480
Smoking Never n, (%) 22 (56.4) 28 (66.7) 27 (71.1) 0.269
Former n, (%) 4 (10.3) 5 (11.9) 3 (7.9)  
Current n, (%) 13 (33.3) 9 (21.4) 8 (21.1)  
  1. aP-value from ANOVA test or χ2 test, for continuous or categorical variables, respectively.
  2. bContinuous variables are presented as mean values ± standard deviation, while categorical variables are presented as absolute number and frequencies.
  3. c P < 0.05, T1 vs. T3; from post hoc Tukey test to correct for multiple comparisons.
  4. BP, blood pressure; HOMA-IR, insulin resistance index; LDL-c, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; HDL-c, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol; NEFA, non-esterified fatty acid; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL6, interleukin-6; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; MET, activity metabolic equivalent.