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Table 5 Vitamins: The average levels of vitamins measured in the Autism and Neurotypical groups are reported below, along with their standard deviations

From: Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity

Vitamins Units Autism Group Neuro-typical Group % Difference p-value Neurotypical Reference Range (10th and 90th percentiles) Autism Group % below RR Autism Group % above RR Tietz Reference Range[39] NHANES1999-2002 Reference Range (6-11 yr and 12-19 yr)[38] Sonora Quest
Vit. A (plasma) μg/100 ml 54.3
+/- 10.7
54.9
+/- 12
  n.s. 39-71 0% 9% 26-61
(7-19 yr)
26.0-51.2
30.8-70.6
(in serum)
26-49
(7-12 yr, in serum)
Total Carotenes
(beta carotene and other carotenes, in plasma)
μg/100 ml 150
+/- 55
178
+/-53
-16% 0.01 111-251 29% 8%    
Vit B1
Thiamine
(WB)
μg/l 64
+/- 10
63
+/-9
  n.s. 48-72 11% 20% 56 +/- 12
(children and young adults)a
  87-280 nmol.L
(adult)
Vit B2
Riboflavin
(WB)
μg/l 284
+/- 42
282
+/-52
  n.s. 224-332 4% 15%    
Vit B3
Niacin and Niacinamide
(WB)
μg/l 7.00
+/- 1.1
7.07
+/-0.97
  n.s. 5.9-8.2 16% 15%    
Vit B5
Pantothenic Acid
(WB)
μg/l 640
+/- 128
714
+/-180
-11% 0.02 504-965 11% 0% 200-1800
(adult)
  
Vit B6 (as P5P in RBC) μg/l 17.9
+/- 16
15.2
+/-5.3
  n.s. 8-21 13% 20%    
Folic Acid (serum) μg/l 17.7
+/- 7.2
18.7
+/-6.1
  n.s. 12-28 20% 7% 3-20
(adult)
9.9-33.2
6.0-24.7
3.1-17.5 (adult)
Vit B12
(plasma)
ng/l 699
+/- 235
676
+/-215
  n.s. 327-938 4% 18% 200-835
(adult)
369-1260
267-941
(in serum)
243-394
(adult, in serum)
Vit C
(plasma)
mg/100 ml 1.57
+/- 0.61
1.33
+/-0.46
+18% 0.03 0.75-1.85 13% 29% 0.4-1.5
(adult)
0.2-1.7
(12-19 yr, in serum)b
0.2-1.9
(adult)
Vit D3
(25-hydroxy in plasma)
μg/l 29.9
+/-8.4
28.6
+/-8.4
  n.s. 19-44 9% 7% 14-60
(adult)
17-35
13-35
30-100
Total Vit E (serum) mg/100 ml 0.78
+/- 0.18
0.90
+/-0.32
-14% 0.03 0.6-1.4 9% 0% 0.45-0.95
(1-19 yr)
0.55-1.13
0.53-1.14
 
Biotin (WB) ng/l 394
+/-100
491
+/-164
-20% 0.001 * 257-709 7% 0% 200-500
(adult)
  
Vit K (plasma) ng/l 294
+/- 158
295
+/- 189
  n.s. 129-530 9% 7% 130-1190
(adult)
  80-1160
(adult)
Vitamin-like substances            
Free Choline
(RBC)
mg/l 6.3
+/- 2.9
5.6
+/- 1.7
  n.s. 4.0-7.6 22% 35%    
Total Choline
(RBC)
mg/l 363
+/- 66
310
+/- 51
+17% < 0.0001 * 260-362 5% 53%    
Lipoic Acid
(plasma)
μg/l 2.56
+/- 1.5
2.85
+/- 1.2
  n.s. 1.2-4.5 5% 16%    
Biomarkers of functional need for vitamins            
FIGLU μg/l 1.99
+/- 0.92
1.62
+/- 0.72
+23 % 0.03 0.65-2.6 5% 27%    
Methylmalonic Acid mg/g-creatinine 9.0
+/- 7.3
7.5
+/- 5.0
  n.s. 1.6-13.7 2% 13%    
N-methyl-nicotinamide mg/g-creatinine 5.0
+/- 4.4
3.6
+/- 2.3
+40% 0.04 1.2-7.1 13% 17%    
Kryptopyroles μg/dl 39.3
+/- 30.
35.8
+/- 15
  n.s. 14-56 13% 11%    
  1. The p-value for a t-test comparison of the two groups is also reported. If the p-value is below 0.05, then the % difference between the groups is reported, and the result is highlighted.
  2. The table also lists the reference range of the neurotypical group (10th and 90th percentiles), and the % of the Autism group who are above or below the reference ranges. Note that if the groups were identical, 10% would be above and 10% would be below. Percentages above 25% are highlighted. Reference Ranges from Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry (Burtis and Ashwood 1999), the NHANES National Report, and Sonora Quest are given where available.
  3. a) From Wyatt et al 1991 [110].
  4. b) From Schleicher et al 2009 [111], based on NHANES data from 1999-2002 [38].
  5. * Statistically significant difference between the two groups with 95% confidence per Bonferroni analysis.