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Table 8 Metabolic Markers The average levels measured in the Autism and Neurotypical groups are reported below, along with their standard deviations

From: Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity

  Units Autism Group Neuro-typical Group % Difference p-value Neurotypical Reference Range (10th and 90th percentiles) Autism Group % below RR Autism Group % above RR
Free Sulfate
(plasma)
μmol /
g protein
1.44
+/- 0.51
4.09
+/- 2.28
-65% < 0.00001 * 1.4-7.5 56% 0%
Total Sulfate
(plasma)
μmol /
g-protein
1121
+/- 212
1566
+/- 384
-28% < 0.0001 * 987-2070 36% 0%
SAM
(RBC)
μmol/dl 214.5
+/- 15
228.4
+/- 12
-6% < 0.0001 * 210-242 39% 4%
SAH
(RBC)
μmol/dl 44.6 +/- 8.0 42.6
+/- 4.4
  n.s. 40-52 27% 24%
SAM/SAH ratio   4.9
+/- 1.1
5.4
+/- 0.6
-10% 0.006 4.1-6.0 25% 13%
Uridine
(plasma)
10-6 mol/l 15.3
+/- 7.5
7.9
+/- 2.7
+93% < 0.00001 * 5.5-10.9 4% 60%
Adenosine
(plasma)
10-8 mol/l 23.2
+/- 5.9
20.6
+/- 3.4
+12% 0.008 17-26 11% 33%
Inosine
(plasma)
10-6 mol/l 3.56
+/- 0.91
3.83
+/- 0.93
  n.s. 2.7-5.2 16% 5%
Reduced plasma glutathione (GSH) nmol/ml 3.23
+/- 0.48
4.09
+/- 0.79
-21% < 0.0001 * 3.1-5.1 53% 0%
Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) nmol/ml 0.447
+/- 0.13
0.362
+/- 0.10
+24% 0.001 * 0.22-0.52 0% 30%
Ratio of oxidized to reduced plasma glutathione   0.14
+/- 0.05
0.093
+/- 0.04
+49% < 0.0001 * 0.05-0.15 4% 42%
Plasma nitro-tyrosine μg/l 16.6
+/- 7.8
7.4
+/- 5.1
+125% < 0.0001 * 3.7-18 0% 44%
  1. The p-value for a t-test comparison of the two groups is also reported. If the p-value is below 0.05, then the % difference between the groups is reported, and the result is highlighted.
  2. The table also lists the reference range of the neurotypical group (10th and 90th percentiles), and the % of the Autism group who are above or below the reference ranges. Note that if the groups were identical, 10% would be above and 10% would be below. Percentages above 25% are highlighted.
  3. * Statistically significant difference between the two groups with 95% confidence per Bonferroni analysis.