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Table 1 Characteristics of adult participants across quartiles of total dietary intake of fructose: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study1

From: Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

  Men (n= 1141) Women (n= 1396)
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P 1 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p
Dietary fructose range
(g/1000 kcal/d)
≤ 13.3 13.3-17.5 17.6-23.7 > 23.7   ≤ 10.3 10.4-15.2 15.3-20.8 > 20.8  
Dietary fructose median
(g/1000 kcal/d)
11.1 15.4 19.7 28.1   7.2 12.6 17.9 25.9  
Participants (n) 285 284 285 287   338 359 349 350  
Age (y) 38 ± 12 2 39 ± 13 41 ± 13 43 ± 13 < 0.01 37 ± 12 37 ± 12 39 ± 13 41 ± 13 < 0.01
Physical activity (MET-h/wk) 40.5 ± 69.2 2 43.4 ± 74.2 45.3 ± 72.8 36.8 ± 62.4 NS 29.9 ± 37.9 32.2 ± 41.5 32.3 ± 55.5 32 ± 37.9 NS
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.1 ± 0.2 3 26.3 ± 0.2 26.9 ± 0.2 27.3 ± 0.2 < 0.01 26.2 ± 0.2 26.8 ± 0.2 27.7 ± 0.2 27.8 ± 0.2 < 0.05
Waist/hip ratio 0.94 ± 0.07 3 0.94 ± 0.06 0.95 ± 0.06 0.96 ± 0.05 < 0.01 0.81 ± 0.08 0.82 ± 0.09 0.82 ± 0.08 0.84 ± 0.09 < 0.05
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.83 ± 0.06 3 4.71 ± 0.06 4.78 ± 0.06 4.81 ± 0.06 NS 4.71 ± 0.05 4.73 ± 0.05 4.81 ± 0.05 4.88 ± 0.05 < 0.05
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.05 ± 0.05 3 2.92 ± 0.05 2.95 ± 0.05 2.99 ± 0.05 NS 2.87 ± 0.04 2.89 ± 0.04 2.97 ± 0.04 2.84 ± 0.04 NS
Current smoker (%) 24.6 25 23.5 23.7 NS 3.0 2.2 2.9 3.4 NS
Abdominal obesity (%) 48.4 47.2 52.3 58.5 < 0.05 18.6 25.3 27.8 27.4 < 0.01
Impaired fasting glucose (%) 12.6 15.1 15.4 18.1 NS 10.1 13.9 15.8 14.0 NS
Hypertriglyceridemia (%) 44.6 41.2 44.9 46.3 NS 27.5 25.6 28.9 34.6 < 0.05
Low HDL-cholesterol (%) 58.6 63.3 57.2 64.8 NS 69.2 69.6 69.1 69.7 NS
Hypertension (%) 21.1 23.6 30.2 32.1 < 0.01 12.1 17.3 14.6 19.1 NS
Metabolic syndrome (%) 31.9 34.9 37.2 44.3 < 0.01 16.3 20.9 21.8 27.1 < 0.01
  1. 1P values comparing the characteristics of participants across quartiles of fructose intake using analysis of variance (for age and physical activity), general linear model (for body mass index, waist/hip ratio, total and LDL-cholesterol), and Chi-square test for categorized variables.
  2. 2 Values are mean ± SD
  3. 3 Values are age-adjusted mean ± SEM