Palmitate oxidation in palmitate-exposed human islets (A), MIN6 cells (B) and INS-1E cells (C). The cells and islets were cultured for 3, 24 and 48 hours in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate (Pa) and 2 μCi [3H]palmitate per ml at 5.5 or 25 mM glucose (Glu). AICAR (1 mM; Aic) or etomoxir (0.2 mM; Et) were added as indicated. Islets cultured at 5.5 mM glucose; MIN6 cells cultured at 25 mM glucose and INS-1E cells cultured at 11 mM glucose alone were considered as controls. After culture, media were collected, 3H2O separated and radioactivity determined by a liquid-scintillation spectrometer. Results are means ± SEM of 3-4 independent experiments. *P < 0.05 compared to low glucose and #p < 0.05 effect of additive.