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Table 1 Animal studies that have investigated the effects of a KD on tumor progression and host survival

From: Is there a role for carbohydrate restriction in the treatment and prevention of cancer?

animals n tumor feeding C/P/F major fat source diet initiation diet duration BW vs. controls BG vs. controls other effects vs. controls Ref.
     (E%)   (d) (d)     
C57BL/6 mice 18 B16 melanoma ad libitum 0/0/100 1 PUFA vegetable oil 0 14 - b lower number of lung metastases b [116]
BALB/c mice 20 Medina-Oborn-Danielson mammary tumor restricted to 60 E% of control 30/60/5 hydrogenated vegetable oil ~ 14 70 c mortality rate ↓ c [83]
NMR1 mice > 15 MAC16 colon carcinoma ad libitum .../.../80 2 MCT emulsion 8 20 - 50% less weight loss b; left35% less tumor weight [121]
NMR1 mice ... MAC16 colon carcinoma ad libitum .../.../80   14 - 21 9 - 36% less weight loss a [123]
           32% less tumor weight c  
           less nitrogen output a  
C57BL/6 mice 6 CT-2A mouse astrocytoma restricted to 60 E% of control 0/8/92 lard 1 13 3 3 80% less tumor weightb; plasma IGF1 levels ↓ b,3 [84]
C57BL/6 mice 11 CT-2A mouse astrocytoma ad libitum 3/17/80 soy oil (KetoCal©) 3 > 8 - - no significant differences in either tumor weight, survival or vascularity [114]
+ + +          
BALB/cJ SCID mice 14 U87 glioblastoma restricted to 65-70 E% of control 3/17/80 soy oil (KetoCal©) 3 >8 b b 65% (CT-2A)band 35% (U87)cless tumor wet weight;  
           longer survival b; lower number of blood vessels (both tumors)  
nu/nu mice 20 LNCaP human prostate cancer ad libitum 10/45/45 ... 14 63 a ... plasma insulin levels ↓ c; plasma IGF1 levels ↓ c; [97]
           45% less tumor volume a;  
           43% less tumor dry weightc;  
           decreased levels of phosphorylated Akt (below detected limits) and insulin receptor in tumor tissue  
SCID mice 25 LAPC-4 human prostate cancer 9% more energy than control 0/16/84 milk fat + lard -24 > 40 - c longer survival b [134]
NMRI mice 12 23132/87 human gastric adenoma ad libitum 0/14/86 cheese + MCT + omega-3 oil 0 > 16 - - longer survival a; [130]
           tumor growth rate ↓ c;  
           larger necrotic area in tumors b  
C3H/HeN mice 4 5 squamous cell car-cinoma VII ad libitum 16/58/26 ... -7 16 41% less tumor volume d [131]
Foxn1nu mice 12 LNT-229 glioma cells ad libitum 0/13/36 flaxseed and hempseed oil 1 > 63 - - no significant differences in survival, tumor growth and plasma IGF1 levels [128]
  1. In all but one cases, control diets contained a minimum of 40% CHO. Diet initiation refers to the time of tumor cell plantation.
  2. SCID = Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; C/P/F = ratio of CHO:protein:fat; E% = percent of energy; BW = body weight; BG = blood glucose
  3. 1 plus not further specified pellets on days 5, 8 and 11/2 plus 3 mg/ml beta-hydroxybutyrate in drinking water/3 controls were fed a KD ad libitum, not high-CHO/4 similar results for Rag2M mice bearing human colorectal HCT-116 tumors/a p < 0.005; b p < 0.01; c p < 0.05; d p < 0.1
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