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Table 4 Serum clinical chemistry markers for the CARB and NOSS groups

From: Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise while consuming commercially available pre- and post-workout supplements, NO-Shotgun® and NO-Synthesize® on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of protein synthesis, and clinical safety markers in males

Variable Group Day 0 Day 29 Test (p < .05) Group x Test (p < .05)
Glucose (mg/dL)     .142 .315
  NOSS 82.00 ± 4.98 83.00 ± 11.45   
  CARB 81.80 ± 6.52 86.90 ± 5.56   
BUN (mg/dL)     .117 .117
  NOSS 14.80 ± 3.42 14.80 ± 3.22   
  CARB 15.33 ± 2.82 12.88 ± 3.85   
Creatinine (mg/dL)     .016* .413
  NOSS 0.896 ± 0.150 0.949 ± 0.145   
  CARB 0.916 ± 0.087 1.07 ± 0.201   
Sodium (mmol/L)     .304 .681
  NOSS 137.40 ± 2.79 139.72 ± 2.26   
  CARB 136.67 ± 2.06 137.67 ± 9.08   
Potassium (mmol/L)     .107 .671
  NOSS 4.06 ± 0.177 4.34 ± 0.568   
  CARB 3.95 ± 0.274 4.12 ± 0.446   
Chloride (mmol/L)     .665 .561
  NOSS 101.70 ± 2.79 103.24 ± 2.85   
  CARB 101.33 ± 2.64 101.11 ± 8.47   
CO 2 (mmol/L)     .787 .349
  NOSS 21.40 ± 1.07 22.40 ± 1.07   
  CARB 20.11 ± 2.20 19.55 ± 4.90   
Calcium (mg/dL)     .799 .247
  NOSS 9.27 ± 0.577 9.58 ± 0.322   
  CARB 9.28 ± 0.481 9.07 ± 1.24   
Protein (mg/dL)     .914 .336
  NOSS 6.79 ± 0.645 6.95 ± 0.353   
  CARB 6.85 ± 0.657 6.65 ± 1.18   
Albumin (mg/dL)     .653 .244
  NOSS 4.41 ± 0.338 4.50 ± 0.205   
  CARB 4.48 ± 0.341 4.28 ± 0.695   
Globulin (mg/dL)     .622 .622
  NOSS 2.38 ± 0.410 2.45 ± 0.310   
  CARB 2.36 ± 0.393 2.36 ± 0.574   
Albumin/Globulin     .157 .436
  NOSS 1.89 ± 0.237 1.87 ± 0.231   
  CARB 1.93 ± 0.300 1.86 ± 0.304   
Bilirubin (mg/dL)     .181 .465
  NOSS 0.550 ± 0.295 0.440 ± 0.171   
  CARB 0.667 ± 0.282 0.633 ± 0.400   
ALP (U/L)     .066 .816
  NOSS 52.30 ± 12.84 56.40 ± 18.36   
  CARB 58.55 ± 15.56 63.77 ± 21.77   
AST (U/L)     .982 .403
  NOSS 17.80 ± 4.15 17.40 ± 4.67   
  CARB 17.55 ± 5.07 17.88 ± 4.59   
ALT (U/L)     .785 .785
  NOSS 10.70 ± 4.16 10.70 ± 6.26   
  CARB 7.66 ± 1.93 8.33 ± 5.63   
  1. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. * Denotes a significant increase at Day 29 compared to Day 0.