Effects of serum treatment on mitochondrial component genes in human adipocytes. Cultured human adipocytes were incubated for 48 hours with human serum collected on day 0 (baseline), 7 or 28 after high dairy diet or soy-based control diet. (a) Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7 (Cox 7c), (b) nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase ((c) mitochondrial encoded subunit (MT-ND1) and (d) nuclear encoded subunit (NDUFA)) were significantly up-regulated after dairy feeding compared to baseline and soy diet. Values are expressed as means of % change to baseline ± SE (n = 4 to 5 subjects/group). Gene expression data are normalized to 18S. Differing letters above the bars denote significant differences between groups, p ≤ 0.05.