From: Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study
Total (n = 174) | Cases (n = 58) | Controls (n = 116) | Significance^{b} | |
---|---|---|---|---|
Age (years) (Mean ± SD) | 56.18 ± 10.93 | 56.55 ± 11.20 | 55.99 ± 10.84 | P-value > 0.05 |
Sex | X^{2} =0.00, P-value > 0.05 | |||
Males | 105(60.3) | 35(60.3) | 70(60.3) | |
Females | 69(39.7) | 23(39.7) | 46(39.7) | |
Income per month^{c} | X^{2} = 1.521, P-value > 0.05 | |||
≤1.5 million LL | 44(25.3) | 18(31.0) | 26(22.4) | |
> 1.5 million LL | 130(74.7) | 40(69.0) | 90(77.6) | |
Marital status | X^{2} = 1.04, P-value > 0.05 | |||
Single | 28(16.1) | 7(12.1) | 21(18.1) | |
Married | 146(83.9) | 51(87.9) | 95(81.9) | |
Education | X^{2} = 3.85, P-value >0.05 | |||
< High school | 31(17.8) | 15(25.9) | 16(13.8) | |
≥ High school | 143(82.2) | 43(74.1) | 100(86.2) | |
Family history of diabetes | X^{2} = 37.94, P-value <0.001 | |||
None | 124 (71.3%) | 24 (41.4%) | 100 (86.2%) | |
Yes (mother, father or both) | 50 (28.7%) | 34 (58.6%) | 16 (13.8%) | |
Smoking | X^{2} = 0.12 , P-value > 0.05 | |||
Non smoker | 120(69.0) | 41(70.7) | 79(68.1) | |
Smoker ^{d} | 54(31.0) | 17(29.3) | 37(31.9) | |
Physical activity level | X^{2} = 17.18 , P-value < 0.01 | |||
Low physical activity | 103(59.2) | 47 (81.0) | 56(48.3) | |
Moderate to high physical activity | 71(40.8) | 11(19.0) | 60(51.7) | |
Breakfast per week (Mean ± SD) | 5.83 ± 2.12 | 5.72 ± 1.94 | 5.90 ± 2.22 | P-value > 0.05 |
Meals per day (Mean ± SD) | X^{2} = 0.27, P-value > 0.05 | |||
1-2 meals per day | 38(21.8) | 14(24.1) | 24(20.7) | |
≥ 3 meals per day | 136(78.2) | 44(75.9) | 92(79.3) | |
Percent Body fat (%) (Mean ± SD) | 30.40 ± 7.98 | 33.43 ± 8.76 | 28.88 ± 7.12 | P-value < 0.001 |
BMI (Kg/m^{2}) (Mean ± SD) | 28.14 ± 5.19 | 30.79 ± 5.51 | 26.81 ± 4.48 | P-value < 0.001 |
obese (BMI > =30)^{e} | 61(35.1) | 32(55.2) | 29(25.0) | X^{2} = 15.46, P-value < 0.001 |
Waist circumference (cm) (Mean ± SD) | 99.45 ± 12.98 | 106.53 ± 12.01 | 95.92 ± 12.00 | P-value < 0.001 |
Elevated waist circumference ^{f} | 145(83.3) | 57(98.3) | 88(75.9 ) | X^{2} = 13.99, P-value < 0.001 |