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Table 1 Socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the study population a

From: Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

  Total (n = 174) Cases (n = 58) Controls (n = 116) Significanceb
Age (years) (Mean ± SD) 56.18 ± 10.93 56.55 ± 11.20 55.99 ± 10.84 P-value > 0.05
Sex     X2 =0.00, P-value > 0.05
Males 105(60.3) 35(60.3) 70(60.3)  
Females 69(39.7) 23(39.7) 46(39.7)  
Income per monthc     X2 = 1.521, P-value > 0.05
≤1.5 million LL 44(25.3) 18(31.0) 26(22.4)  
> 1.5 million LL 130(74.7) 40(69.0) 90(77.6)  
Marital status     X2 = 1.04, P-value > 0.05
Single 28(16.1) 7(12.1) 21(18.1)  
Married 146(83.9) 51(87.9) 95(81.9)  
Education     X2 = 3.85, P-value >0.05
< High school 31(17.8) 15(25.9) 16(13.8)  
≥ High school 143(82.2) 43(74.1) 100(86.2)  
Family history of diabetes     X2 = 37.94, P-value <0.001
None 124 (71.3%) 24 (41.4%) 100 (86.2%)  
Yes (mother, father or both) 50 (28.7%) 34 (58.6%) 16 (13.8%)  
Smoking     X2 = 0.12 , P-value > 0.05
Non smoker 120(69.0) 41(70.7) 79(68.1)  
Smoker d 54(31.0) 17(29.3) 37(31.9)  
Physical activity level     X2 = 17.18 , P-value < 0.01
Low physical activity 103(59.2) 47 (81.0) 56(48.3)  
Moderate to high physical activity 71(40.8) 11(19.0) 60(51.7)  
Breakfast per week (Mean ± SD) 5.83 ± 2.12 5.72 ± 1.94 5.90 ± 2.22 P-value > 0.05
Meals per day (Mean ± SD)     X2 = 0.27, P-value > 0.05
1-2 meals per day 38(21.8) 14(24.1) 24(20.7)  
≥ 3 meals per day 136(78.2) 44(75.9) 92(79.3)  
Percent Body fat (%) (Mean ± SD) 30.40 ± 7.98 33.43 ± 8.76 28.88 ± 7.12 P-value < 0.001
BMI (Kg/m2) (Mean ± SD) 28.14 ± 5.19 30.79 ± 5.51 26.81 ± 4.48 P-value < 0.001
obese (BMI > =30)e 61(35.1) 32(55.2) 29(25.0) X2 = 15.46, P-value < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) (Mean ± SD) 99.45 ± 12.98 106.53 ± 12.01 95.92 ± 12.00 P-value < 0.001
Elevated waist circumference f 145(83.3) 57(98.3) 88(75.9 ) X2 = 13.99, P-value < 0.001
  1. aCategorical variables are expressed as n (%); continuous variables are expressed as Mean ± SD.
  2. bSignificance is derived from independent t-test for continuous variables and Chi square test for categorical variables.
  3. cIncome is expressed in terms of Lebanese Liras L.L (1500 L.L is almost equivalent to $1 U.S.).
  4. dSmokers were defined as current smokers while non-smokers included non-smokers and past smokers.
  5. eObesity is defined as BMI ≥ 30Kg/m2.
  6. f Elevated waist circumference is defined by a circumference ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females according to the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF).