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Table 1 Anthropometric, body composition, hormonal and biochemical parameters of obese groups and non-obese control subjects

From: Unacylated Ghrelin is associated with the isolated low HDL-cholesterol obese phenotype independently of insulin resistance and CRP level

Variables MHO (n = 21) MAO (n = 17) LHO (n = 21) Non-obese (n = 21)
Age (yr) 37 ± 5 38 ± 11 34 ± 9 33 ± 6
Gender (Male/female) 4/17 6/11 6/15 5/16
BMI (kg/m2) 41.4 ± 4.1 43.3 ± 4.7 48.4 ± 8.3 22.1 ± 2.9§,¶,**
Waist circumference (cm) 121.1 ± 13.5 129.0 ± 14.3 137.0 ± 15.4 74.8 ± 7.6§,¶,**
Systolic BP (mmHg) 124.6 ± 5.2 128.5 ± 7.5 127.4 ± 7.1 121.4 ± 5.9
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 78.2 ± 6.4 77.6 ± 9.0 76.8 ± 7.7 74.2 ± 8.9
FFM % 38.0 ± 13.1 33.5 ± 15.2 35.0 ± 14.1 nd
BFM % 43.2 ± 16.4 47.5 ± 12.4 49.8 ± 14.4 nd
REE kcal/d 1608 ± 285 1732 ± 299 1827 ± 352 nd
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 0.3 5.4 ± 0.6 5.0 ± 0.5 4.5 ± 0.5§,¶
Insulin (mU/L) 16.0 ± 8.3 26.1 ± 10.3* 22.1 ± 7.4 7.1 ± 3.3§,¶,**
HOMA-IR score 3.8 ± 2.3 6.1 ± 2.5* 4.5 ± 1.6 1.4 ± 0.7§,¶,**
hs-CRP (mg/L) 5.3 ± 2.2 6.5 ± 3.9 13.8 ± 4.6†,‡ 1.0 ± 0.6§,¶,**
Creatinine (μmol/L) 60.6 ± 4.2 65.5 ± 3.8 57.6 ± 5.2 53.7 ± 2.2
Adiponectin (mg/L) 7.5 ± 3.6 4.9 ± 2.9* 6.1 ± 3.4 9.8 ± 4.8¶,**
Resistin (ng/mL) 17.9 ± 7.5 17.1 ± 9.0 22.3 ± 13.2 10.9 ± 3.4§,¶,**
Leptin (ng/mL) 58.2 ± 22.3 65.3 ± 24.6 82.1 ± 48.4 12.6 ± 10.3§,¶,**
Ghrelin (pg/mL) 185.3 ± 85.3 150.3 ± 61.6 161.2 ± 49 298.6 ± 99.4§,¶,**
Free fatty acids (mmol/L) 0.5 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.2¶,**
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.9 ± 0.3 2.4 ± 0.8* 1.0 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.1
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.4 ± 0.5 4.4 ± 0.7 3.9 ± 0.7 4.3 ± 0.5
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.36 ± 0.1 0.72 ± 0.1* 0.76 ± 0.1 1.56 ± 0.1¶,**
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.1 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 0.6 2.3 ± 0.5
ApoA-I (g/L) 1.6 ± 0.2 1.28 ± 0.1* 1.2 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.2¶,**
ApoB-100 (mg/L) 856.1 ± 165 947.7 ± 289* 771.3 ± 269 736.9 ± 126
ApoC-III (mg/L) 102.1 ± 20.3 169.5 ± 71.6* 93.8 ± 15.2 114.0 ± 30.1
ApoC-II (mg/L) 34.5 ± 9.5 56.5 ± 19.5* 29.4 ± 8.4 36.8 ± 10.3
Total apoC-III ⁄ total apoC-II 3.1 ± 0.7 3.0 ± 0.6 3.2 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.6
ApoB-48 (mg/L) 4.1 ± 1.7 8.8 ± 4,0* 3.5 ± 1.7 3.9 ± 1.8
  1. Values are means ± SD. Statistical significance is from Mann-Whitney U-test.
  2. BFM, body fat mass; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; FFM, free fat mass; LHO, low HDL-cholesterol obese; MAO, metabolically abnormal obese; MHO, metabolically healthy obese; REE, resting energy expenditure; nd, not determined.
  3. *p < .05 MAO vs. MHO.
  4. p < .05 MAO vs. LHO.
  5. p < .05 LHO vs. MHO.
  6. § p < .05 MHO vs. Non-obese.
  7. p < .05 MAO vs. Non-obese.
  8. **p < .05 LHO vs. Non-obese.