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Table 13 Studies examining enzymes of the γ-glutamyl cycle or transulphuration pathway in autism

From: The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Source Study Study size (Male:Female) Cases1 Controls1 P values Overall finding Units of measure
Glutathione peroxidase       
Plasma Yorbik et a l. 2002 [71] 45 cases, (39 M, 6 F) 41 controls, (35 M, 6 F) 270 ± 40 390 ± 80 < 0.05 low U/L
  Söğüt et al. 2003 [72] 27 cases, (16 M, 11 F) 30 controls, (16 M, 14 F) 40.9 ± 11.3 24.2 ± 6.3 < 0.0001 high U/L
  Al-Gadani et al. 2009 [81] 30 cases, (22 M, 8 F) 30 controls, (20 M, 10 F) 2468.8 ± 999.3 1438.5 ± 611.2 < 0.05 high U/L
  Mostafa et al. 2010 [83] 44 cases, (30 M,14 F) 44 controls, (30 M, 14 F) 441.5 (100)2 589 (176)2 < 0.001 low U/L
Erythrocytes Golse et al. 1978 [63] 24 cases, (17 M, 7 F) 6 controls, (2 M, 4 F) 4.7 ± 0.29 8.45 ± 0.95 < 0.0001 low U/g haemoglobin
  Yorbik et al. 2002 [71] 45 cases, (39 M, 6 F) 41 controls, (35 M, 6 F) 28.72 ± 2.64 38.01 ± 5.03 < 0.05 low U/g haemoglobin
  Pasca et al. 2006 [74] 12 cases, (9 M, 3 F) 9 controls, (6 M, 3 F) 7.75 ± 0.93 7.45 ± 0.65 ns ns U/g haemoglobin
  Vergani et al. 2011 [84] 28 cases (21 M, 7 F) 32 controls (20 M, 12 F)    ns ns nmols NADPH/min/mg haemoglobin
Platelets Golse et al. 1978 [63] 36 cases, (15 M, 21 F) 21 controls, (9 M, 12 F) 51.53 ± 1.61 46.56 ± 2.69 ns ns U/g platelet protein
Glutathione reductase       
Plasma Al-Yafee et al. 2011 [85] 20 cases (20 M, 0 F) 20 controls (20 M, 0 F) 70.25 ± 16.35 60.19 ± 15.42 0.052 trend high U/L
Glutathione-s-transferase       
Plasma Al-Yafee et al. 2011 [85] 20 cases (20 M, 0 F) 20 controls (20 M, 0 F) 0.42 ± 0.18 0.73 ± 0.37 0.002 low μmol/min/ml
  1. ns Not significant 1Mean ± standard deviation 2 Median and interquartile range